Cycle of Violence

In 2019, 474 femicides were committed. According to the data of the “Research on Domestic Violence Against Women in Turkey” conducted in 2009, the rate of women who have suffered at least one type of physical or sexual violence is 42%. Almost one in every two women is subjected to violence. The repetitive acts of violence seen in domestic violence turn into a cycle: The Cycle of Violence. The continuation of repetitive and dangerous acts of violence by becoming a cycle is called the cycle of violence. So what makes up this cycle? Why can’t people break this cycle despite being subjected to violence? Although physical violence is the first thing that comes to mind when it comes to violence, there are other types of violence that seem very common. In addition to the types of violence I shared in the Post, “Digital or Virtual Violence”, a product of developing technology and the world, has also emerged. But I want to cover this in another post. So, what can we do if we experience violence or know someone who has been abused? Who should we call? Let’s discuss these questions today in purple posts. I would love to read your comments on this subject as well.

  • Cycle of Violence

  • Why do people continue to stay in the loop?

  • Types of violence

  • What can we do?

Cycle of Violence

Cycle of Violence is the continuation of repetitive and dangerous acts of violence in a cycle. The cycle of violence consists of 3 stages:

  1. Rising tension: The perpetrator creates tension. Argues about petty matters, shows jealousy, has an angry mood, tries to control his partner, and uses psychological violence. Alcohol use may also occur.

  2. Violence: The perpetrator cannot control his anger and inflicts physical violence on his partner. The extent of the violence can vary. His partner may be injured or even in danger of death. The partner, on the other hand, makes excuses after committing physical violence.

  3. Honeymoon: The perpetrator regrets what he has done and tries to win the heart of his partner. He tries to win back his partner by receiving gifts, behaving lovingly, trying to convince him that he will not do it again. The partner also wants to believe in these attitudes and behaviors; however, the honeymoon period only lasts until the next tension rises.

Why do people continue to stay in this cycle?

  1. Cultural factors: Gender inequality, proverbs and idioms embedded in our language, stereotyped attitudes towards women, patriarchal beliefs, stereotyped gender roles, unawareness of legal rights, not getting enough support from judicial institutions, the thought that divorce is not culturally welcome.

  2. Psychological factors:

    1. Social learning: While men who have been exposed to or witnessed violence in their childhood are the perpetrators of violence, women who have been exposed to or witnessed violence in their childhood are more victims of violence.

    2. Learned helplessness: The victim feels powerless and does not believe that whatever he does will break this cycle.

    3. Emotional reasons: Victim’s self-blame, false belief that he deserves this violence, feeling hopeless-helpless-trapped, lack of emotional support, believing that the perpetrator will change, shame.

  3. Threatening:

    1. Threat: About killing your partner, family and loved ones; if the partner has a child, it’s about kidnapping and not showing it; about disclosing your privacy; the threat of curtailing economic freedom.

Types of Violence

  1. physical violence : The perpetrator intentionally applies brute force to the other person, causing injury, psychological harm, and even death. physical violence; slapping, kicking, trying to strangle, throwing objects, punching, damaging with cutting tools.

  2. Psychological (emotional) violence: The perpetrator uses his emotions to humiliate, criticize and act in a way that threatens his self-esteem. He ignores his partner’s feelings and thoughts, blames him, makes him feel valued, humiliates him in public, exploits feelings, shows extreme jealousy, mocks, threatens and manipulates his feelings. It causes harm by affecting the psychological health of the person.

  3. Sexual violence: The perpetrator is the act of sexual content without the consent of the other person. Although there are actions such as forcing the other person to have sexual intercourse, raping, harassing, having sexual intercourse without accepting no answer, touching the genitals, they cause both physical harm and psychological trauma to the person.

  4. Economic violence: It occurs when the perpetrator restricts the economic freedom of the other person and uses money as a means of pressure. Examples of economic abuse; It can mean preventing the other person from working, not being able to find a job (if any), not giving money, consuming using the income of the other person, if any.

What can we do?

  • You can file a complaint against the perpetrator by using the Law No. 6284 on the Protection of the Family and the Prevention of Violence Against Women.

Organizations you can apply to:

  • Police stations, gendarmerie stations

  • Family Courts

  • Healthcare organizations

  • Public Prosecutor’s Office

  • Violence Prevention and Monitoring Centers (ŞÖNİM)

  • Provincial Directorates of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies

  • Municipal Women’s Counseling Centers

  • Legal Aid Offices of Bar Associations

  • Women’s Organizations

(This part is the pages I used, but I didn’t give reference as APA because the article is not heavy. I was also inspired by the speeches of Clinical Psychologist Serap Altekin.)

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