Current Treatment Methods in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

Physical medicine and rehabilitation, diagnosis and treatment of congenital or acquired muscle, nervous and skeletal system problems as well as neurological, orthopedic diseases, mechanical problems, trauma, pain, dysfunctions that develop after surgery and movement restrictions due to many other diseases. It is a specialty that deals with protective methods. Physical medicine and rehabilitation specialization branch is very open to new developments in medicine in the context of related diseases. Today, with the developing technology and innovations in the field of medicine, traditional and complementary medicine methods are used as widely as physical therapy agents (hot-cold applications, electrical treatments, deep heaters such as ultrasound, laser, exercise applications, etc.) in musculoskeletal system pathologies. Methods such as neural therapy, Prp injections, ozone therapy, manual therapy, dry needling, kinesiotaping (taping), mesotherapy, trigger point injections, intra-articular injection applications have recently strengthened the hand of us physicians in treatment, either alone or together with appropriate patients. No need for surgical treatment in most diseases; This can be attributed to the development and widespread use of new treatments. Soft tissue rheumatism such as myofascial pain syndrome, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis (calcification), joint pain (shoulder, elbow, wrist, fingers, hip, sacroiliac joint, knee, ankle), sports injuries, low back and neck pathologies, rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid It can be applied in diseases such as arthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis), nerve compression, tendon strain.

Neural therapy: It is the application of local anesthetic and saline mixtures with a needle to the areas stimulated by the nerve fibers in order to restore the impaired functions of the body and provide pain control. Headaches, all musculoskeletal pains, persistent neck and low back pain, neck and waist hernias, fibromyalgia syndrome, nerve compressions, calcification, tendon injuries are among the diseases that fall under the application areas. Although it varies according to the patient and the disease in the form of 1-2 sessions per week, a total of 5-10 sessions should be performed.

PRP (Platelet-rich plasma): PRP treatment is a method prepared from the person’s own blood and used in many areas of medicine to stimulate healing and regulate this warning. 8-20cc of the patient’s own blood is taken into a special tube, and the healing cells and substances obtained from this blood by special separation methods are applied to the diseased area with a needle. It is frequently used as a method to support treatment and accelerate healing, especially in joint calcifications, tendon strains, sports injuries, after orthopedic surgeries and many other painful diseases. Generally, two or three applications are made once a month or once every 15 days. The frequency and number of sessions are determined by considering the patient’s disease and clinical condition.

Ozone therapy: Ozone is a colorless, unstable gas with a distinctive odour, consisting of 3 oxygen atoms. The ozone-oxygen mixture produced by the ozone generator can be applied to the body with different methods, strengthens the immune system and ensures the removal of harmful compounds from the body. It can be used in metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, high cholesterol, as well as in rheumatic diseases with chronic pain, arthritis, waist-neck joint pain, sports injuries. It can be used for intramuscular applications through blood, as well as for intra-articular applications. In ozone therapy, a total of 12 sessions of a cure treatment is carried out in the form of 2 applications per week. Then, 1 application is made per month for the continuation of the well-being.

Mesotherapy: Mesotherapy can be used for cosmetic purposes as well as a treatment method used in the treatment of pain. Mesotherapy material is obtained by diluting and mixing different drugs in lower than normal doses. This material is applied to the middle layer of the skin in painful areas with very fine needles and special methods. It can be applied directly to the painful area by specialist physicians in cases such as low back and neck pain, joint pain, sports injuries, calcification, tendon, meniscus problems. The number of sessions may vary depending on the condition of the disease; For example, 2 sessions may be sufficient in acute cases such as sports injuries, while 6-8 sessions of treatment can be performed in chronic cases.

Kinesiotaping (Kinesio Taping): It is the application of special elastic bands on the skin with unique techniques. These bands can stay on the skin for 4-7 days. The tapes can also be applied to form layers on top of each other, and the cutting shape, application direction and region may differ according to different purposes. Kinesiotaping theoretically lifts the skin, increasing the space between the skin and the muscles, and relieving the pressure in the area. It can be used as a supportive treatment to other treatments in many musculoskeletal diseases. Multiple applications can be made once a week.

Intra-articular injections: Intra-articular injection treatment, calcification or rheumatic diseases, etc. It is a treatment method that can be performed by entering into the joint with special techniques, since one or more joints are affected as a result. With this method, drugs (steroids, hyaluronic acid, local anesthetics, etc.), substances such as PRP, CGF, ozone can be used. Depending on the condition of the disease, injections can be repeated or a single application can be made. These injections can be applied to the small joints of the knee, shoulder, hip, elbow, sacroiliac, hand or foot when necessary.

Trigger Point injection: Trigger points are hard knots in the muscles, which can also be called “culp” among the people. They are usually the places that cause the pain in the muscle to start and increase. It can be in more than one muscle or it can be in a single point. They result from myofascial pain, trauma, repetitive muscle activities, and impaired posture. Although it is frequently seen in the neck and back region, these trigger points can occur in all muscle structures of the body. Pain due to trigger points can be very severe at times. Trigger point injection is done by carefully injecting low-dose local anesthetic into the trigger point. The main purpose is to reduce the activity of the trigger point where the muscle spasm originates. Although one-time applications are sufficient, the sessions can be repeated according to the condition of the disease.

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