Corneal Diseases

The cornea is a transparent and curved tissue located at the front of the eye, specialized to focus the light and protect the eye from external factors. It is almost like a watch glass, because it is transparent, it is not noticed by people when viewed from the opposite side, when viewed from the outside, the iris layer of the eye (the layer that gives color to the eye) and the pupil (pupil) in the middle of the eye can be noticed.

The cornea and lens (lens) ensure that the light from the external environment is effectively focused on the retina, where the visual cells are. The refractive power of the cornea is not variable, whereas the refractive power of the lens is variable and focuses so that objects at certain distances fall on the retina.

The cornea must be transparent for the image to be transmitted clearly into the eye. Therefore, it does not contain blood vessels in its structure. Oxygenation and nutrition of the cornea is provided by tear secretion and air on the outside, and intraocular visual fluid on the inside. Since the cornea contains many nerve fibers in its structure, it is very sensitive to external factors. It protects and maintains the health of the cornea with its nerve fibers, blink reflex and supportive properties. The cornea looks like a very delicate structure, but it is almost as hard as a nail because its structure is similar to that of a nail. However, it is very sensitive to touch.

The cornea consists of 5 separate layers. The top layer is a tissue that renews itself within 24-48 hours. Since the cornea is the tissue in the front of the eye and the eye is an open organ, the cornea is the first tissue to be affected by trauma. Since most eye injuries or infections affect this upper layer of the cornea and this layer has the ability to renew itself, the cornea can return to its original state. However, if the injury or any corneal infection has affected the lower layers, the healing will be by leaving a stain in front of the eye, and since the transparency of the transparent cornea is deteriorated, the image also deteriorates and becomes blurred. Because other than the top layer, the other 4 layers do not have the ability to fully renew themselves and diseases heal by leaving a trace.


  • Pain

  • watering

  • redness

  • light sensitivity

  • pronounced blurred vision



    • Keratoconus

    • Keratoglobus

    • Pellucid marginal degeneration


    • Bacterial, viral, fungal infections

    • allergic keratoconjunctivitis

  • Congenital Diseases of the Cornea

    • Large or small cornea

    • Corneal dystrophies


  • MEDICAL THERAPY: Drug treatment is generally applied in cases of infection or dry eye, and necessary drug treatments are arranged for the patient.

  • SURGICAL TREATMENT: It is performed to change the integrity, transparency or optical properties of the cornea. Among the surgical treatments applied to the cornea;

    • Excimer laser applied to change the refractive state of the eye

    • Crosslink treatment (cross-linking treatment) applied in cases where the inclination of the eye is impaired and the intra-corneal ligaments are weakened

    • The treatment of superficial spots in front of the eye is phototherapeutic keratectomy, which is also performed with excimer laser.

    • Corneal transplantation: It is a transplant surgery in which the transparent corneal tissue taken from the dead is replaced with the damaged corneal tissue, which is applied in cases where the transparency of the corneal layer is impaired.


It is known as eye transplantation among the people, but the transplantation of the whole eye is not in question, because the eye is an organ in the form of an extension of the brain and is connected to the brain by the optic nerve. In order for the entire eye to be transplanted, the eye must be cut off from the optic nerve and replaced with another eye.

What is referred to as eye transplantation is the transplantation surgery performed in patients whose transparency of the corneal tissue, which is actually the transparent tissue in the front of the eye, is impaired so as to impair vision, or in patients whose curvature shows excessive deviations and the transmission of the image to the retina is thoroughly impaired. It is made only with tissue taken from the dead. Even if the person has his/her own will, it is not possible to transfer from a healthy person to his twin.

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