Consciousness and CBT

Summary

Consciousness is one of the most important features of living beings. Consciousness is a product of our brain. The reactions, perceptions and interpretations we give or want to give are the structures that make up our consciousness. Cognitive therapies focus on the human mind and cognitive processes. Behavioral therapies, on the other hand, try to replace behavioral disorders with techniques such as behavioral techniques, homework, and daydreaming. Cognitive behavioral therapies are the result of a combination of the two. In this study, we will evaluate our consciousness in terms of cognitive behavioral therapy.

Key words:Consciousness, cognition, cognitive behavioral therapy, evolution.

Login

“Cogito, ergo sum” When we said I think, therefore I am, René Descartes we all thought about how deep this saying was. So, is it our thinking that makes us humans human? We would probably say basically yes to this question, but when we think more broadly, the answer to this question will be partially yes. Who could argue otherwise that a leopard doesn’t think while focusing on its prey. So Descartes was emphasizing the magnificence of our brain when he said, “I can ignore my body, but I cannot ignore my thoughts.”

Consciousness in general is the ability that is generally accepted as the center of awareness, emotion, perception and knowledge in humans. It is the part of the mind that is aware of its contents, known through introspection, containing sensations, perceptions, and memories. It is the ability that is accepted as the center of awareness, emotion, perception and knowledge in humans. It is the part of the mind that is aware of its contents, known through introspection, containing sensations, perceptions, and memories.

Life began in the oceans, even single-celled creatures without a brain had the ability to react by sensing the environment. Our transition from single-celled to multi-celled organisms began with cells communicating with each other and working in coordination. Living things came ashore 360 ​​million years ago, and the evolution of mammals began 200 million years ago. Early mammals had a small neocortex on their brain surface that enabled behavior. We do not have any information about how the neocortex was formed, but we can say that it is the result of the race for survival as a result of natural selection.

In our ongoing evolution, communication between our forebrain, which has grown in size, and the subregions within the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe, has increased. With this development, our motor movement control has improved.

The first primates appeared about 85 million years ago, and 65 million years ago, with the extinction of the dinosaurs, the rise of mammals and primates began. While East Africa was covered with dense forests (23-4 million years ago), primates were accustomed to living in trees. With the change of continents and climate changes, the evolution of standing, color vision and the evolution of idle hands, flattening the face and shrinking the chin gave rise to brain development.

The developing brain uses more energy. Today, the brain of an adult uses 20% of our daily energy. With the development of Broca’s area 1.9 million years ago, development increased and the volume of the brain improved over the years. Cultural evolution entered our species and the ability to speak was acquired, and those who could not acquire this skill were excluded. With the development of language, the development of the brain has also accelerated (Marcus 2003).

The development of the brain has always increased in volume until modern humans. In contrast, volumetric developments in the brain stopped for 200,000 years. However, our brain has shrunk by 3-4% over a period of 15-20 thousand years (Robson 2011). After this pause in volume increase, the most important development in brain evolution will be the increase in neuronal activity.

While chimpanzee and human brains show a similar development until the 16th week of pregnancy, Franchini (2015) continues to develop the human brain after the week, but the chimpanzee brain begins to regress (Sakai 2013).

Consciousness is observed in socially living creatures such as bees, chimpanzees, and dolphins. Studies in recent years emphasize the communication established with the “mirror neuron” in the formation of consciousness. Together with mirror neurons, the organism activates both its own behavior and the behavior of the other person at the same time. Other than human; Its existence has been conclusively proven in macaque monkeys and songbirds. Its deepest effects are in the prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobe (speech and language) regions. Contributions of mirror neurons in evolution; adaptation, social learning, understanding what others are doing, social learning, observation and imitation (Suzuki 2015).

The interaction of mirror neurons constitutes a process such as speech, feeling, empathy and thought. It gives the ability to read minds and record the behavior of others. It can lead to the emergence of consciousness and to predict the future by contributing to the internal experience of events, recording them in memory and thought. Just as we perceive that an aggressive attitude will come in a person who looks with anger, and even we look angry.

The act of imitation is of great importance for humans to be a dominant being in nature. In this way, learning and cultural transfer are provided. The human brain has evolved over generations, reaching greater understanding and awareness, and continues.

Consciousness is a complex structure that cannot be explained in a single sentence. Consciousness also represents mysteries; Unsound processes such as suffering and disappointment are also in consciousness. However, very few of these negative experiences are at the level of consciousness. For most people, these mysteries are similar to what we call the unconscious.

Argument

Consciousness is a complex structure that cannot be explained in a single sentence. Consciousness also represents mysteries; Unsound processes such as suffering and disappointment are also in consciousness. However, very few of these negative experiences are at the level of consciousness. For most people, these mysteries are similar to what we call the unconscious.

Singmund Freud, a Viennese physician in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emphasized the importance of the unconscious. Freud is not the first person to emphasize the unconscious, but by establishing the topographical theory, he likened consciousness to an iceberg and opened an important door by saying that consciousness is the small visible part of the iceberg and the invisible part is the most important part.

Freud’s psychoanalysis and subsequent dynamic psychotherapies focus on unconscious conflicts as the basic therapy approach. They believe that by resolving these inner conflicts, one will attain spiritual balance and awareness.

Today, although psychoanalysis has lost its former popularity, it is still among the most widely used psychotherapies. Cognitive behavioral therapies have emerged as a result of the dating that has developed since the 1960s with the behavioral therapies, which developed together with psychoanalysis and are opposite in many respects, and the cognitive therapies, which are a type of therapy that focuses more on mental processes and thought structure than the subsequent behavior.

We need to be alert to react to the stimuli around us. For this, there is the opinion that one should be awake. However, as a result of experiments, it has been proven that consciousness is not clear only when awake (for example, dreams). Let’s take the dream phenomenon, our sense of self is often in place in our dreams, we know the people in front of us and our body reacts according to the action we do. In other words, although we can talk about a consciousness, it is often not possible for us to control it. Freud defined dreams as the royal road of the unconscious. In fact, if we set out from this relationship, we can understand how close the conscious and unconscious are. If we need to give an example of the conditions in which the consciousness is closed, the state of coma can be given as an example.

An example of ecstasy can be given to us gaining or losing our consciousness. It is quite possible that we lose control of our consciousness in activities that provide intense motivation such as meditation and dhikr.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a psychotherapy method developed using psychological models that examine human behavior and affect. There are many studies proving that it is an effective method in many psychological problem areas.

Cognitive theory states that life memories in early childhood cause basic thoughts and belief systems to develop through learning. Fundamental thoughts and beliefs combine to form schemas. Schemas, on the other hand, affect rigid thought patterns and the way an individual perceives both himself and the world in his life. The aim in CBT is to help the person get rid of the distressing situation by using his own resources. While doing this, he benefits from getting rid of inappropriate thoughts, homework or exercises.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a structured therapy method that emphasizes that our thoughts determine what we feel and how we act. It is based on learning theories and cognitive psychology principles. Cognitive behavioral therapy argues that the rearrangement of the sentences used in the inner speech of a person’s own way of thinking will create a suitable arrangement for that person’s behavior (Ergene, 2008).

Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on the here and now. Psychoanalysis does not focus on the here and now. On the other hand, although short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies focus on the here and now, they look for the implications of this in the past, that is, they go down to the unconscious again. Cognitive-behavioral therapies are concerned with consciousness and its processes, and the therapy focuses on the closer and more visible consciousness, namely cognition, not on deep processes such as the unconscious.

Cognitive theory clinically examines the cognitions it deals with while conceptualizing the cognitive structure of the individual under two main headings: automatic thoughts and schemas. Schemas can be divided into two groups as intermediate beliefs and core beliefs. If we think of these three groups of cognitions as three intertwined circles, automatic thoughts are at the top, intermediate beliefs are at the bottom, and basic beliefs are at the core (Türkçapar, 2008).

automatic thoughts; It is the name given to the verbal and imaginary parts that make up the flow of cognition. The reason why these thoughts are called “automatic” is that they are thoughts, pictures that suddenly appear in the mind. CBT specifically deals with the negative automatic thoughts that accompany moments of emotional distress. Often these thoughts go unnoticed while the accompanying emotion is noticed. For example, in the mind of the student who read the question in the exam he took, “I can’t understand.” an automatic thought may pass (Türkçapar,2008).

Automatic thoughts cause the person to distort the “objective situation” he/she encounters due to his/her existing cognitive infrastructure, resulting in dysfunctional emotions and mostly behaviors related to these emotions. These behaviors often serve to maintain the existing cognitive infrastructure. This cognitive infrastructure is schemas (Özdel,2015).

Intermediate beliefs and rules; Intermediate beliefs and rules can be uncovered from common and repetitive themes in automatic thoughts by using deepening technique or scales. Even if it is not expressed too much in words, thoughts that start with the word “if” and include “should-should” may be intermediate beliefs and rules (“If I make a mistake, I will fail completely”, “Good guys should not get angry”). Intermediate beliefs and rules are a protective buffer that people develop to protect themselves from negative core beliefs. For example, a youth with a core belief of inadequacy develops an intermediate belief to protect himself: “If I make a mistake, I will fail completely.” may form. The goal in CBT is to recognize and change or bend strict rules that don’t work. (Türkçapar,2008; Özcan, Çelik,2017)

Conclusion

Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on the here and now. Psychoanalysis does not focus on the here and now. On the other hand, although short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies focus on the here and now, they look for the implications of this in the past, that is, they go down to the unconscious again. Cognitive-behavioral therapies are concerned with consciousness and its processes, focusing the therapy on the closer and more visible consciousness, namely cognition, not on deep processes such as the unconscious.

The concept of consciousness has always entered the literature from a dynamic and analytical perspective. Unfortunately, not many studies have been done with adequate cognitive behavioral therapy on the concept of consciousness. The main reason for this is that consciousness is not taken as a single concept and includes the concepts of unconscious and preconscious. The concepts of unconscious and preconscious have mostly been of interest to psychodynamic theory and have not been of interest to cognitive-behavioral therapists.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *