It is a surprising development that attachment theory was accepted within the concept of psychodynamic therapy only fifty years later. The reason for this fifty-year refusal is basically a different theory ground and methodological design that the UK has used and established itself on. Because, although the UK has a psychoanalytic basis, it is actually oriented towards systemic psychology/psychiatry and psychoanalysis has perceived this as a threat to its own existence for a long time. But today there is also broad acceptance within psychoanalysis for early psychic processes gained through direct observation of infants and children. Especially the works of Stern and Lichtenberg brought a new thinking model to psychoanalysis and supported interdisciplinary dialogue. Today, the dialogue between Psychoanalysis and the UK is in a better state. Because dealing with the emotional reflections of the disorganization created in us by our world, which has become unpredictable today, has become better than understanding how the individual represses his (specific) undesirable impulses within a cultural structure, which is the main (beginning) occupation of psychoanalysis. Because the central problem of today’s postmodern man insecurity and inability to connect . At this point, the UK also has its own approach. confidenceand insecurityfocuses on the problem.
A CRITICISM OF PSYCHANALYSIS TO CONNECTIVE THEORY
“It’s very mechanical, it’s not dynamic, and it’s based on misinterpretation of psychoanalysis.” Bowlby did not consider and disapproved of the impulse dynamics, the oedipus complex, unconscious fantasies and processes, and internalized motivation and conflict resolution processes/systems that have a complex structure. BK considered the experience of bodily separation as a single explanatory variable in his theory. He did not care about negative attachment, for example, fear of mother, and did not give it any weight in his theory. He also ignored those familiar freudian stages in self-development. From this point of view, Bowlby actually did everything to make it difficult to be accepted in the psychoanalytic community :). Bowlby’s aim here has been to observe, investigate and capture representations of reality; not to investigate the reality of the world of representations! Today, however, UK has a function and importance in psychoanalysis, and its reflections are: direct observation, infant and child research, self/self experience, meaning of empathy (being connected), emotional mirror (reflection) contributions.
These fields, which I have mentioned above, have enabled the empirical analysis of the mythological concepts in psychoanalysis, such as oedipus and electra complexes, and the questionable metaphors of autism, symbiotic relationship, and introjection, together with a non-ideological questioning, with an approach of curiosity, suspicion and scientific necessity.
Experience is the primary source of behavior, and the interpretation of these experiences opens the way for therapeutic change. Experimental psychology distances itself from interpretation and places its weight on reliable observation. It avoids speculative theorizing.
1. Freud’s systematic observation of his 1.5-year-old nephew, Ernest Freud. Publishing Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Observations of children in the neonatal ward and intensive care unit in the context of trauma and separation anxiety.
2. Anna Freud: Founder of child psychoanalysis. Analytical child observations. Observations of child developmental stages. Establishing experimental kindergartens for children from lower income groups.
3. Rene Spitz: II. He presented data based on direct observation of children in prisons and mental hospitals after World War II. analytic depressionused the concept for the first time and described it in self-development of one-year-old children. psychic organizersdeveloped the concept.
4. Margaret Mahler: In the early 60s, she studied one and two-year-old children on the basis of separation and individuation. She described the autistic and symbiotic stages of development. The picture of the child, which is valid until Mahler, is that he is a passive, undifferentiated and self-motivated being. The symbiotic relationship is used here mostly for the relationship of the child. However, today there is a very clear perspective and paradigm shift. The infant/child is defined as an active entity. Dornes has given a competent definition of baby. Stern spoke of the development of self-reception in the infant/child as the organizing principle. Mahler defined the infant’s fusion and unity with the mother as a primary experience and separation as an impulse that develops from this fusion. Stern, on the other hand, conceptualized that the perception of separate beings is a primary experience in the infant/child, and that this experience provides us with a safe ground for the development of our partnerships and for being a separate individual. However, UK researchers have also moved closer to psychoanalysis. close relationshipsresearch, self psychologyand narcissismbecame interested in the theory.
5. John Bowlby: Founder of UK. Bowlby defined mother and child—today this relationship includes the father—as participants in a transitional and self-regulating system. The Attachment formed between mother and child in this system is only a part of RELATIONSHIP, which is a complex system. UK connects systemic and psychoanalytic approaches, including ethology (developmental biology) and developmental psychology perspectives. BK’s basic postulate focuses on the early effects on the child’s emotional development and can explain the emergence and changes of strong emotional attachments between individuals in all life biographies. Over time, Bowlby shifted his initial pathological perspective towards a normal developmental psychology perspective. The question he is interested in is: “What is the essential nature of the relationship between mother and child?”.
Bowlby has three articles seeking answers to this question:
1. Drive theory (S. Freud) does not provide an adequate explanation of how the infant establishes object relations (self-representation). Babies do not connect with the object (ie the mother) only to satisfy their impulses; In addition securityand relationship they approach that object because of what they offer. Fairbairn stated that the priority is not the elimination of the pleasure principle, but rather the object (mother) itself. Bowlby, on the other hand, emphasizes that the baby’s purpose is not the object (mother) itself, but rather its existence and mood (safety, security).
2. On Separation Anxiety. “Separation anxiety occurs when the infant’s/child’s need for attachment becomes active but the attachment person is unavailable.”
3. Examines young children’s experiences of pain and mourning about a permanent loss/loss. Observations of three typical responses that result from these experiences: PROTEST, DEPENDENCE, AND SEPARATION. Protest: the child is aware of the threatening separation. Crying, anger, searching for parents, not making physical contact with others. Helplessness: Withdrawal from activities, monotonous crying, sadness, aggressive behavior towards other children and favorite toys. Separation: Returning to sociability, not rejecting (anymore) offers of relationality, deviant behavior that draws attention to the main relational object.
Reasons for Bowlby’s criticism by psychoanalysts:
1. Criticize the drive theory to justify the need for attachment
2. Putting ethology (developmental biology) as the main source of motivation theory
3. His demeaning attitude towards the meaning of the Oedipus complex
4. His rejection of metapsychology
5. Emphasis on cognitive psychology (representation theory and relationship schemas)
6. Emphasize interpersonal relationships rather than intrapsychic dynamics
7. His interest in research and his disinterest in clinical Kasuistik
Melanie Klein’s critique of Bowlby: “We believe that autoplastically produced fantasies determine our perception of reality and the way we process it, and that our real experiences only modify our internally generated fantasies.” Bowbly’s response to this criticism is: “The content of my fantasies is influenced and shaped only by our experiences with the world outside!”.
Bowlby’s statements about the UK:
1. The UK has tried to bring into a concept our tendency as human beings to develop strong emotional attachments to other people.
2. Attachment is an emotional conveyor belt in which one person connects himself to another person and establishes a bond with one another that transcends time and space. You can connect to more than one person, but not dozens. Spiritual and bodily pain are clear indications of attachment. Attachment necessitates emotional development. Separation anxiety, and anxiety in general, activates and reinforces the need for attachment.
3. Attachment behavior is associated with a preferred person whom we perceive as stronger and smarter than ourselves. intimacy and relationality It is any form of behavior that aims to produce. It’s like crying and calling, calling, chasing after, being constantly hung up on, snapping and protesting. With increasing age, the frequency and intensity of attachment behavior types decreases. But the need for attachment remains fundamentally. In adults, types of attachment behavior become more pronounced if the person is unhappy, ill, or anxious/fearful. The above option is linked to one’s childhood experiences.
4. Rule of thumb for people of all ages: when any difficulties/hazards etc arise, those who have social support, who offer the confidence they seek in their life, etc. people with people are both very happy and can realize themselves more easily: a) a child whose desires are blocked, anger arises, his anxiety increases with insecure relationships, and when he finds the support and trust he seeks behind, he begins to explore his world.
Attachment as a Behavior System.
1. Smiling, making noises/agu agu, talking, shouting, screaming are expressions of attachment behavior. Whether perceived positively or negatively, this repertoire evokes a response in the person who hears it. This repertoire is necessary for survival, ensuring both the satisfaction of security needs and the satisfaction of basic needs. “The baby is crying, I think he’s hungry!”
2. Attachment behavior includes the psychological mechanisms by which we establish and reinforce the need for intimacy. a) the child produces signals (eg smile) to arouse the interest of the caregiver. b) Avoidant behaviors such as crying and screaming c) activates the muscles of the child by moving to approach the person of orientation.
3. The goal directed by the child’s internal system is initially physical, that is, maintaining the mother’s closeness. closeness to this physical need is then replaced by a psychological need of intimacy; because the goal is not the object itself, but rather the baby’s own existential and emotional, situational balance. A healthy continuity of this psychological need in the child depends on the attachment behavior repertoire of the person of orientation. The type of attachment between infant/child and parent builds working models that the child will use in their later life biography relationships (considered from the cognitive behavioral perspective, it corresponds to the development of relationship schemas.
There are four types of these internal working models, or types of engagement:
1. Secure Attachment: The mother is sensitive to the child’s reactions, responds immediately and soothes; A healthy attachment that acknowledges the child’s need for relationship, but also supports it when the child’s interest extends to surrounding objects.
2. Insecure/Avoid Attachment: a reluctant interest in the child. “friends can see it in shopping”. Parental attitudes that gradually reinforce the child’s introversion into loneliness (Psychodynamic here: “If I play well alone and don’t bother my mother by calling my mother for help, my mother will love me or I will have her approval!”) These children’s need for intimacy and relationship has been greatly inhibited by the parents and they have been rejected. they feel. They have a basic anger at rejection that they can never show or express. That’s why they walk around with a mask on their faces that hides their anger.
3. Insecure / ambivalent attachment: Arbitrary mothers. there is one and they don’t exist. sometimes very warm and caring and instantly interested, soothing and sometimes dismissive disinterested. they are constantly demanding and obsessive, and in their adulthood they are apathetic and indifferent to their surroundings. Attachment behavior systems are chronically active. In laboratory setting experiments/observations, they have a repertoire of helplessness behavior towards strangers. anxiety levels are high. Their helplessness, incompetence, insecurities, and anger (towards the mother) immediately surface when they are some distance from the attachment person, and they are very difficult to calm down. Children in this attachment and later adults are insecure and ambivalent because their personality structure is a mixture of both a desire for intimacy and feelings of anger.
4. Insecure-Disorganized Attachment: These are children who have traumatic experiences with parents. For example, borderline personality development. While there is a trauma that parents have not yet resolved, it is possible for parents to have children and transfer this trauma to their children. There is no safe ground in the attachment behavior. Complete inhibition of one’s own need for internal connection in adulthood, inability to (e.g.) empathize (eg, anti-social personality-sociopathy, etc.). They make connections that are very superficial, general, one-sided, strict and formal, and that do not coincide with their age and developmental stage. Children who were abused/harassed/raped or neglected in their childhood often develop this type of attachment. In clinical practice, this type of attachment is frequently diagnosed with borderline personality disorder or agoraphobia. Forensic diagnoses are also made frequently. Diagnoses of schizophrenia are also frequently present in this group.
Complementary relationship combinations (safe-safe; avoidant insecure-ambivalent insecure; disorganized, traumatic-disorganized, traumatic) can, on the one hand, create ideal partner relationships; On the other hand, these partners can cause mood blunting/hardening in each other. Especially in partner relationships established in an avoidant type. Wardetzki (2003) speaks of the twofold anxiety of the ambivalent type. Anxiety about intimacy and fear of abandonment. He fears that he will be swallowed up when approached, and that he will be alone when away from himself. This ambivalent attitude towards his partner results in his inability to show, give and accept feelings of love.