First of all, I would like to tell you what cholesterol is. Cholesterol is a substance synthesized by the liver in animals and humans. It is also found in body cells. That’s why we don’t want to buy extra from outside. If we look at the lipids in the plasma; triglyceride, phospholipid and cholesterol. Lipids are insoluble in water and are transported bound to proteins. This formation is called lipoprotein. Lipoproteins differ according to their composition, size and density. Very low-density lipoproteins are called VLDL, low-density lipoproteins are called LDL, and high-density lipoproteins are called HDL.
When we look at the recommended blood lipid levels;
Total cholesterol: <200 mg/dL
LDL cholesterol: <130 mg/dL
HDL cholesterol: >35 mg/dL
Triglyceride <200 mg/dL
We want it to be worth it.
What Should Our Diet Be With High Cholesterol?
We get cholesterol into our body only from foods of animal origin. It is wrong to say that there is cholesterol in foods of plant origin. Because foods of plant origin do not contain cholesterol. Cholesterol intake below 300 mg per day is desired. A diet model that emphasizes the consumption of vegetables and fruits, contains low-fat dairy products, contains poultry, contains fish, legumes, recommends the use of vegetable oil and oilseeds, and limits the intake of sugar, sugary foods and red meat should be preferred.
Mediterranean Diet Model applicable . How Does? Mediterranean type diet model; It is desired to consume more than 2 portions of vegetables and more than 3 portions of fruit every day, and that they consist of different varieties, thus providing adequate intake of many vitamins, minerals and pulp to our body. We should take 150 grams of dried legumes, more than 3 servings a week, at the same time, it allows us to take soluble fiber into our body. Although soluble fiber is effective in lowering cholesterol, it has been determined that the use of oats, dried legumes, vegetables and fruits, which are the best sources of soluble fiber, together with yogurt is more effective in lowering cholesterol. We need to take 100-150 g of fish or 250 g of seafood more than 3 days a week, so we get omega-3, which is poor in saturated fat, into our body. The Mediterranean diet allows us to eliminate ready-made products by consuming sweets and pastries less than three days a week, and keeps us away from foods rich in saturated fat and containing trans fat. Instead, he recommends healthy snacks such as almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, which are oily seeds and unsaturated fatty acids, rich in phytosterol, fiber, vitamin E, with portion control because they are foods that are open to overeating. It is the type of diet that asks us to minimize our red meat consumption. Because red meat and processed meats are rich in saturated fat, and white meat provides orientation instead. It asks us to limit sugary or sweetened foods. Instead of margarine, cream, butter, which is rich in saturated fat, a diet based on olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, should be formed, with more than four servings per day. Finally, we can adapt the Mediterranean diet type to our lives, especially by using garlic, tomato, leek, onion and vegetable-based sauces.
As suggested by the Mediterranean diet type, the point to be emphasized is that the composition of the fat is of great importance. The lipids in the blood and the component of the fat we take from the outside are of great importance. Saturated fatty acids ie margarine, palm oil, cocoa butter etc. they raise cholesterol. Therefore, it is necessary to minimize the percentage of saturated fat in our diet. Trans fat-containing margarine and minimizing the percentage of processed foods will be effective in lowering our cholesterol. If we consume oils such as olive oil, hazelnut and walnut rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, they help to decrease LDL. At the same time, fish oil rich in n-3 fatty acids helps to lower triglycerides.
After changing our dietand then take it with you 3-4 days a week for an average of 40 minutes. moderately vigorous physical activityIf we add it, it can be shown among the auxiliary methods in lowering HDL and LDL cholesterol.
WHAT SHOULD OUR GOAL BE;
Reducing the use of margarine.
Frying should never be preferred. It is cooking in a closed, humid environment in the oven or on the stove.
Reducing meat consumption.
Trying to consume low-fat food.
Developing low-fat alternative foods to replace high-fat ones.
Proposal ; If the goal is not achieved after 6 months of dietary therapy, drug therapy should be considered.