Causes of hip pain

Your hip is one of the largest weight-bearing joints in your body. It is a ball-and-nest style joint. A ball (femoral head) at the top of the thighbone (femur) enters the cup-shaped cavity (acetabulum) in your pelvis. Bands of tissue called ligaments form a capsule that connects the ball to the socket and keeps the bones from moving. The inner surfaces of the joint are covered with a layer of smooth tissue called cartilage. The cartilage structure provides a soft and slippery support to the surface of the bones, helping the ball to rotate easily in the socket.

Hip Pain Causes

1- Pain Caused by Hip Region Muscles and Other Soft Tissues:

The most common pains in the hip region are those originating from soft tissues such as muscles and ligaments in this region. Bursitis, which is caused by the inflammation of small sacs called bursa, which are found to reduce friction between the muscles and bones, is one of the common causes of pain in the hip. Prolonged standing, unusual exercises and non-routine movements can also cause muscle pain. Determination of the cause of pain should be ensured by the examination of a specialist orthopedist.

2. Calcification of the Hip Joint (Osteoarthritis):

The disease, known among the people as calcification of the hip joint, is medically defined as hip osteoarthritis or coxarthrosis. The most common cause of hip pain, especially in middle-aged and older people, is osteoarthritis. The word arthritis means inflammation of the joint. Many disorders that can cause inflammation in the joint cause permanent damage to the joint surfaces and eventually arthritis. Articular cartilage is normally a smooth and slippery surface. Thinning of the cartilage, roughness and cracks that go down to the bone occur due to arthritis. As the cartilage deterioration progresses, the bone surfaces begin to rub against each other. The lubricity of the joint decreases, pain occurs. The main complaint that bothers the patient in arthritis is pain. Pain increases with activity and weight-bearing, and is usually relieved by rest. The pain felt in the hip area can spread to the thigh and groin. As the disease progresses, joint movements are restricted and walking difficulties occur.

3. Rheumatic Diseases Involving the Hip Joint:

The word rheumatism is a fairly general term. Commonly used to express pain or pain around bones, muscles and joints. When rheumatism is mentioned, a single disease cannot be understood. Dozens of diseases, some of which are common and some of which are quite rare, are in this group. In fact, the most common of these diseases is ‘rheumatoid arthritis’. It is popularly known as inflammatory rheumatism. The problem in rheumatoid arthritis is inflammation (inflammation) of the joint lining (synovium). Inflammation thickens the synovium, releasing chemicals that damage the cartilage and bone of the problematic joint. Initially, the pain due to inflammation is replaced by the progression of the damage in the articular cartilage over time, causing calcification (arthritis) pain and limitation of movement. Apart from rheumatoid arthritis, other rheumatic diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and gout can also cause calcification by involving the hip joint.

4. Childhood Problems Like Developmental Hip Dysplasia:

The disease, formerly known as congenital hip dislocation, and developmental dysplasia of the hip with new information gained in recent years, refers to the incompatibility between the femoral head and the acetebulum. Adaptation problems, which start from birth and increase over time, result in dislocation and calcification if not treated in the early period. It is 6-8 times more common in girls than boys and may be hereditary. The incidence is higher among those born breech and those with a family history of hip dislocation. In addition, hip dysplasia is more common in children born with bent neck and toes, such as torticollis and metatarsus varus.

5. Avascular Necrosis of the Hip Joint:

It is a disease of unknown cause. It develops as a result of the deterioration of blood supply of the head of the femur bone that forms the hip joint. Bone cells die and bone softens and collapses in the period until blood supply is restored. This joint incompatibility also leads to calcification. It is the first condition that should be considered in hip pain, especially in young adults who have had various chronic diseases. If the diagnosis is not made in the early period, joint damage progresses rapidly. In advanced cases, prosthesis treatment is the only option.

6. Traumatic Situations:

Hip fractures are common, especially in people with osteoporosis. Even a simple fall can lead to fractures in osteoporotic bones. For this reason, hip pain in the elderly should be ruled out first. Sometimes the fracture cannot be detected on normal x-rays. MRI and tomography are necessary for diagnosis in such cases.

Slippage of the growth plate of the femur bone is a hip disease that is seen in young people and usually develops after trauma. Patients apply to the doctor with pain and limitation of movement. It should be corrected and determined according to the degree of slippage.

7. Cancer Diseases:

Cancers of direct bone origin can be seen in the hip region, as well as the spread of cancers in other regions can also involve the hip bones. This condition is called metastasis. Especially lung, kidney, breast and prostate cancers can metastasize to the hip bones. This kind of spread is the first thing to come to mind in hip pain in cancer patients. Metastases that are not treated in the early period may weaken the bone structure and lead to fracture.

8. Microbial Diseases

Inflammatory conditions caused by microbes in the hip joint are called ‘septic arthritis’. Especially in infants with hip pain, this situation should be investigated. Septic arthritis is a disease that needs urgent treatment. Delays in treatment cause permanent damage to the cartilage tissue and lead to severe calcification in the hip joint at young ages.

9. Pains Spreading from the Waist Region to the Hip

Nerves in the hip region originate from the lumbar region. Therefore, diseases such as herniated disc and herniated disc may present with pain radiating to the hip. In many of our patients, low back pain due to hip origin can be seen. For this reason, hip joints should be evaluated by a specialist orthopedist in patients treated for lumbar hernia or slippage.

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