Causes of High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is an increase in blood pressure. Although this limit changes from time to time, a systolic blood pressure above 140 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure above 90 mm Hg is sufficient for us to talk about the presence of high blood pressure. Some lifestyle habits may also be effective in hypertension (high blood pressure) disease, where genetic predisposition plays an important role. Salt consumption, stress, excess weight are examples. On the other hand, diseases such as sleep apnea, thyroid, kidney failure, diabetes can also cause high blood pressure.

Having a family history of high blood pressure

The most common cause of hypertension is familial predisposition. The incidence of hypertension in the family of patients is around 95%. According to studies, the risk of developing this disease is 5-6 times higher in people with a history of hypertension in their first or second degree relatives. When environmental factors such as smoking and unhealthy diet are added to the genetic predisposition, the age of occurrence of the disease may decrease until the age of 30.

Salt consumption

Excessive daily salt consumption is one of the important factors that cause hypertension. It is enough to consume 6 grams of salt per day. When this measure is exceeded, edema occurs due to water retention in the body and blood pressure rises. In addition, excessive salt consumption leads to atherosclerosis in the long run. Even people who do not have a family history of hypertension may encounter this picture at an early age due to excessive salt consumption. For this reason, the World Health Organization recommends consuming an average of 6 grams of salt per day.

kidney diseases

Kidney diseases also raise blood pressure. When the blood flow is impaired due to narrowing, calcification or plaque formation in the vessels coming to the kidney, some substances secreted from the kidney contract the vessels, causing the heart to work more rapidly, and as a result, hypertension. There is a vicious circle between hypertension and kidney diseases. While kidney diseases raise blood pressure, kidney damage occurs as blood pressure rises.


A patient with diabetes has a higher risk of developing high blood pressure. Diabetes; It prepares the ground for high blood pressure as it increases vascular resistance, variability in the structural fibers of the vessel wall and hardening of the vessels.

Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea raises blood pressure. When the sleep apnea problem of patients with both sleep apnea and high blood pressure is intervened in a timely manner, hypertension usually disappears. However, if it is delayed, high blood pressure can become chronic.

endocrine diseases

In addition to thyroid hormones, adrenaline, serotonin and estrogens, irregular or excessive secretion of hormones such as renin, aldosterone and cortisone secreted from the adrenal gland directly affect blood pressure. For example, when thyroid hormones are secreted excessively in the body, they increase the load on the vessels and increase blood pressure.


A sedentary lifestyle and obesity raise blood pressure. Weight gain forces the heart to pump more blood. This means a separate load for the heart and vessels and an increase in blood pressure.

eating unhealthy

The most important reason for the increase in the incidence of hypertension today is unhealthy eating habits. Eating excessive fat and carbohydrate-rich diet causes some substances that increase blood pressure to be secreted in the increased adipose tissue in the body. These substances lead to more contraction of the blood vessels, thus increasing blood pressure.


Although stress has no direct effect on hypertension, it can aggravate an existing condition. Anyone can have high blood pressure in times of stress. The important thing is whether the blood pressure drops even after 20-30 minutes have passed. If it is still high then it means that there is a blood pressure problem.

Cigarette consumption

Although blood pressure rises momentarily during smoking, it causes thickening and calcification of the vessels in the long term. Hypertension may develop as a result.

some drugs

Some medications can cause temporary increases in blood pressure. These include pain relievers, cold medications, and some hormone-regulating drugs.

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