Burns have always been an area of medicine that has been very difficult to treat and care for. Burning the outer surface of the body with water or a similar substance is the most common form of burn. Apart from this, burning with flame, contact with hot substances and burning with electricity are quite common in our country. Most burns occur in childhood, and most of them are caused by heating and feeding equipment.
Burns are called first, second and third degree burns according to the depth of the burned skin. The width of the burn is as important as its depth. Burns above 30% of the body surface carry a vital risk, especially in its depth, in children this width decreases to 20% compared to its depth. Electrical burns are handled differently in other burns. At the first burn, there may be cardiac arrest or rhythm disturbance due to the effect of electric current, which is the cause of sudden death. In electrical burns, the depth of burn changes over days from when it was first seen because the electrical current passes through the deep tissues of the body, not just the surface. Occlusions that occur in the blood vessels damaged during this flow in the following days cause tissue necrosis (deterioration) in this region. As time passes, the amount of damage due to the burn is expected to increase. Burns are usually treated in emergency surgery clinics.
Burn treatment includes both vital, functional and cosmetic treatments. All first-degree burns and most second-degree burns heal spontaneously, and all patients require good wound care, prophylactic or anti-infective treatments during healing. Even first degree burns may require hospital treatment. Third-degree burns are closed with Plastic Surgery operations, and skin transfers are performed from intact areas in most of these patients. The creation of artificial skin with stem cells has not yet become widespread, research and development on this subject continues. In third-degree burns that are not treated with surgery, contractions in the wound (contracture) and limitation of movement and narrowing of the joints occur within months, which is an undesirable situation. Therefore, deep burns should be treated by Plastic Surgery in the early period. Hand and face burns are characteristic burns of all degrees and Plastic surgery treatment should be applied in the early period.
Any degree of burn sequelae that has been healed by pulling (contracture), limitation of movement or leaving bad scars requires Plastic Surgery treatment. The aim of these treatments is to bring movement to the joints by widening or opening the narrowed, pulled skin in areas such as the neck, armpits, and hands with limited mobility, and to remove the traces of the burn as much as possible by reducing or eliminating the poorly healed scars.
A number of drugs, splints, and silicone burn corsets can be used during the recovery period for the best healing of burn patients, both functionally and aesthetically.