The ear is examined in three parts:
1. Outer Ear
2. Middle Ear
3. Inner Ear
1. OUTER EAR:
It is the auricle and the canal part that reaches up to the eardrum. Its main task is to collect sound waves and direct them to the canal and eardrum. It is 3.5-4 cm long from the entrance. There are glands near the entrance, and this secretion is known as earwax (plug) among the people.
Hearing loss that occurs during external auditory canal diseases is temporary and can be treated.
2. MIDDLE EAR:
This is an air-filled chamber. The window of the room is the eardrum, which is a flexible structure. The door that allows air to enter the room is the eustachian canal, one end of which extends to the nasal cavity, that is, connecting the middle ear cavity and the nasal cavity. The Eustachian tube opens with swallowing movements, allowing air to enter the ear.
Behind the eardrum, there are 3 ossicles that are attached to each other in order: HAMMER bone, which is attached to the membrane, then the ORS and finally the STABILE. The stirrup is the smallest bone of our body, the development of which is completed in the womb.
The sound wave coming from outside makes the eardrum vibrate. This vibration is transmitted to the inner ear by the ossicles in the middle ear.
Hearing loss that occurs during middle ear diseases can be completely or partially treated with drugs or surgery.
3. INNER EAR:
The inner ear consists of two parts: the Hearing Center and the Balance Center. These two parts are interconnected at certain points. The inner ear is a system of canals (tubules) located in the temporal bone and this system is filled with a special fluid. There are sensory nerve endings in the hearing and balance center. In other words, it is actually a continuation of the brain’s nerve tissue. Nervous tissue is a tissue that has little healing ability when damaged.
A. Hearing center: (Snail)
This is the part where the sound vibrations coming from the middle ear are perceived by the vibrating hair cells and converted into electrical energy and transferred to the auditory nerve. The resulting electrical energy is sent to the auditory center in the brain by the auditory nerve. When the inner ear nerve tissue is damaged, hearing loss is usually permanent. (losses that are noticed very early can sometimes be corrected with medication)
As a result of inner ear damage, hearing loss and tinnitus (in the form of buzzing or high-pitched sound) occur.
Permanent hearing loss can be corrected with hearing aids that are sometimes placed externally or surgically placed in the inner ear (cochlear implant / bionic ear).
B. Balance Center: (Labyrinth)
This is a closed system of liquid-filled tubes consisting of two balance chambers and three semicircular canals. Our ability to stand in balance on two legs and to adapt quickly to new positions that occur during changing movements is provided by this center. The balance center of both ears moves symmetrically with respect to each other during movement.
When the balance center is stimulated or damaged, dizziness called VERTIGO occurs. Vertigo is a (rotational) dizziness in which the person thinks himself or his surroundings are spinning. Sometimes it can be very mild, sometimes in the form of a severe attack accompanied by nausea, vomiting and cold sweats. So vertigo is not a disease but a symptom and indicates that the problem is in the inner ear. Vertigo can sometimes heal spontaneously, sometimes with the help of certain medications, sometimes by making some movements (maneuver) to the head, and sometimes by surgery. Although the damage to the inner ear is permanent, it usually heals completely when the balance center in the other ear takes over over time. If damage occurs in both balance centers, permanent balance problems will occur.
The ear is examined in three parts: