Breast Cancer

The most common cancer in women is breast cancer. Although there are differences between societies, there is a lifetime risk of developing breast cancer in approximately one out of every 8 women (12.2%). Breast cancer rarely develops in men. Only 1% of all breast cancers occur in men.
At the end of the lobules, the smallest unit of the breast structure, there are small sacs that produce milk. The lobules are interconnected by ductules, which eventually converge and lead to the main ducts in the nipple. Lobules are the milk-producing parts of the breast. The ducts help carry the milk to the nipple during breastfeeding. Between the ducts and lobules is the fatty fibrous tissue that holds all the structures together. Breast cancer can originate from any part of the breast structure. It occurs as a result of uncontrolled and abnormal proliferation of cells in one or more sections.
Breast cancers are divided into 2 main types: “Lobular cancers” developing from lobules and “ductal cancers” developing from ducts. More rarely, there may be mixed tumors in which cancer cells develop from both structures and tumors that develop from supporting tissues.
Ductal and lobular cancers are also differentiated according to whether the cancer has spread beyond the milk ducts or mammary lobules of the breast where it started.


Non-invasive (non-invasive) cancers remain in the milk ducts or lobules of the breast, they do not protrude beyond the tissue of origin. They do not grow into or invade normal tissues inside or outside the breast. These cancers are also called “ductal carcinoma in situ or intraductal carcinoma” or “lobular carcinoma in situ or intralobular carcinoma”. These are not cancers in the real sense, they are “precancerous” or “high-risk” lesions.
Sometimes invasive and non-invasive cancers can coexist in the same breast, but they are treated like invasive cancers.

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