Brain Development in Babies

Brain development is a process that goes up like a ladder and continues from the womb to young adulthood. Nerve cells called neurons begin to develop and multiply rapidly in the womb, but the number of neurons decreases after birth. However, the connections between neurons develop and form brain functions. One of the most important factors in the increase of these connections is the activation of the learning process by the baby’s gaining new experiences. The periods when brain development is the fastest are 0-2 years and adolescence.

Apart from genetic factors, the most important role in brain development is nutrition. Deficiencies in nutrition can cause developmental delay by slowing down brain development. In addition, it is known that substance use during pregnancy adversely affects the brain development of the baby.

The sense of touch is very important in terms of mental and emotional development. The baby’s tactile perceptions such as touch, pain, hot and cold have developed with birth. Newborn babies perceive tactile stimuli but cannot know their location. Babies who are exposed to pain experience in the early stages of development may develop sensitivity to pain in their later years. For healthy development, the baby needs experiences such as being hugged, cuddled, caressed, and touching objects. Developmental or emotional problems are seen in babies whose touch needs are not adequately met.

The sense of taste and smell has also developed since birth. Smells begin to be perceived while in the womb and the embryo may react to odors. In order to develop the sense of taste and smell and to establish nutritional habits, it is necessary to introduce the baby to different tastes from the mother’s womb, and to try various foods, especially during the complementary feeding period.

Another sense, sight, is the least developed at birth. In the first 3 months, the baby watches the surroundings with intermittent eye movements, then begins to follow it continuously. Seeing colors clearly only develops fully in the 4th month. Studies show that babies are sensitive to human faces from the first months. A few months old infants prefer a particular face, especially the mother or primary caregiver.

Finally, the sense of hearing is formed in the womb. In the last months of pregnancy, that is, at the 27th week and after, the baby begins to hear sounds. During this period, the mother’s voice reaches the baby clearly. The newborn therefore prefers the mother’s voice. Hearing screening is another check-up that should not be missed in newborns.

For healthy brain development, the baby needs to be adequately exposed to many external stimuli such as touch, taste, smell, colors, shapes and sounds. Child development between the ages of 0-6 is evaluated with the Denver II Developmental Screening Test. With this test, Personal-Social, Fine Motor, Language and Gross Motor skills are examined according to the age of the child, developmental problems can be detected at an early stage and how the child should be supported is understood.

0-2 Age Development Stages

The newborn can move his arms and legs symmetrically while lying on his back. They can follow moving objects with their eyes. It responds to sound.

At 2 months of age, he can lift his prone head from the ground and follow the object 90 degrees with his head. It can make noise.

At 4 months of age, he can hold his head upright while sitting, reach for an object, turn his head towards the sound. He laughs to himself.

At the age of 6 months, he can turn on his back while lying on his face, can hold his head without dropping it while sitting, can pass the object from hand to hand, he starts to make sounds as if he is talking to himself.

At 8 months of age, he can sit with his hands supported, reach out with his arms, knock objects on the ground. Can remove ‘ba’, ‘ma’ syllables.

At the age of 10 months, he can stand by holding on. Imitates hand gestures, such as waving, clapping. He can pick up small objects by pulling them with his finger.

At 12 months of age, he can crawl and walk with assistance. He starts using words on purpose, like mother, father.

At 15 months old, he can walk on his own. The word count increases to four or five. Can scribble on paper with pen. Points to tell what they want.

At 18 months, he can climb stairs with assistance. He can throw the ball across with his hand. He can drink water from a glass. It can show your mouth, nose, eye.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *