Brain and spinal cord anomalies of newborns

Very rarely, newborns are born with congenital brain and spinal cord nerves and abnormal diseases in the spine. Thanks to ultrasonography, one of the advanced technologies of today’s modern medicine, these rare brain and spinal cord anomalies are diagnosed while babies are in the womb. Parents are informed about these diseases before birth.

Brain anomalies; Hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of water in the brain) Stating that hydrocephalus is a disease caused by the increase in the amount and pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, Dr. Akdemir said, “It is the leading cause of neonatal diseases manifested by enlargement of the head, restlessness, vomiting and limitation in the movements of the eyes during the newborn and infancy period. Some genetically inherited diseases appear during birth for traumatic reasons. In the diagnosis of hydrocephalus, discomfort, vomiting, head enlargement, eye shifts and increased pressure in the anterior fontanelle are the primary priorities in the examination of the baby. ” he stated.

Other brain abnormalities Skull, nose and eye abnormalities (craniosnestosis)

When the baby is born, the skull consists of many small bones connected to each other, which is called craniosnostosis when these junctions close prematurely at the turn of pregnancy. The most prominent is the anterior fontanel (fontanel) where the four skull bones meet, the area that allows the baby to grow and usually closes in an average of 12 months. After the premature closure of this fontanel region or the joints of the skull bones, babies are born with deformities in the skull and eyes. The reasons for the premature closure of these bones are; in some cases, it is genetically inherited and other causes; Close consanguineous marriage, drugs used by the mother during pregnancy, blood incompatibility, and radiation are among the known causes.

Spine and spinal cord anomalies (meningocele, meningomyolocele) ; It is the protrusion of a sac containing cerebrospinal water (meningocele) or a sac containing more than one spinal cord nerves in this sac (meningomyolocele) after the bone structure of the spine does not close or remains open in 3-4 weeks during the formation of pregnancy. These anomalies occur early in pregnancy. It is seen in 0.5-3 babies out of 1000 live births. Although the reason is not known exactly; It is seen due to genetic factors, the drugs used unknowingly or previously reported during pregnancy, some vitamin elements (folic acid) deficiency and other unknown reasons.

Another congenital anomalies in newborn babies; Congenital detachment of the spinal cord. This is a rare anomaly and is more common in girls. It is most common in the back and waist regions. It has two types. In the first type, there are two spinal cords separated by a fibrous membrane. In the second type of split spinal cord disease, in this type, the spinal cord is divided by bones and membranes, unlike normal ones. In addition to this type of split spinal cord disease; It is seen together with spinal cord sebaceous glands (lipoma), spinal curvatures (scoliosis), excessive sagging of the spinal cord (tethered spinal cord syndrome), spinal cord cysts, cerebellum prolapse. . In these patients, deformities and spinal dislocations are frequently seen in the feet and fingers. Low back pain is more common in adults, but less common in children. Neurological complaints occur mostly in adolescence and this is seen mostly due to stretching of the spinal cord.

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