In the DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Reference Manual, Borderline Personality Disorder has been shown under the title of Cluster B, which includes personality disorders.
The main feature of Borderline Personality Disorder is that they have conflicts in their relationships and communication styles, their sense of identity and affect, and they have trouble controlling motives that are not seen as consistent. While the prevalence and constant incidence rate in the society is 2-3%, when psychiatry clinics are examined, it is seen that they constitute 30-60% of personality disorder cases. The incidence in women is 3 times higher than in men. These individuals deal heavily with an unrealistic fear of abandonment (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
They are very afraid of their loved ones, friends and relatives leaving them, and they try very hard not to be exposed to such fears. In order to keep their relatives and loved ones under control, they resort to different methods such as putting them into a psychology of guilt, depressing them spiritually and conscientiously, and causing emotional destruction (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
They have tense and inconsistent interpersonal relationships that cause them to experience fluctuations between these thoughts (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
As stated in the DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Reference Manual, a person must have at least five or more of the following items in order to be diagnosed with BPD (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
It is possible to state the diagnostic criteria listed in the DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Reference Manual for individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder as given below.
The person spends a great deal of time avoiding even a probable or imagined scenario of abandonment (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
In terms of interpersonal relations, it is seen that there are inconsistent relations established between two extremes, praising and vilifying others (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
He is confused about his identity. There is no consistency in one’s self-perception (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
The person engages in impulsive behaviors without thinking of the consequences and with a high probability of harming himself. Examples of these impulsive behaviors are being careless about the consumption of money, sexual relations that may cause problems, use of drugs and stimulants, and driving in a way that endanger one’s own or someone else’s life (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
Even if the person does not have suicidal thoughts, he acts as if he is or shows repetitive suicidal behaviors in order to disturb and intimidate the people around him.
Borderline Personality Disorder clearly causes inconsistency in the person’s affect (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
They constantly feel empty.
Trouble managing anger, intense tantrums, or prolonged anger
The person may have occasional paranoid thoughts or symptoms of stress-related dissociation may be seen.
Since Border State Personality Disorder was included in the DSM-5, efforts have been made to include this personality disorder in the first axis. While some researchers try to place Border Personality Disorder close to schizophrenia, many researchers associate it with mood (Belli, H., Ural, C., Akbudak, M., 2013).
In the past studies, it has been seen that the use of drugs and psychotherapy is important in the course of Borderline personality disorder. At the same time, it has been understood that more diagnostic tools should be found in order to diagnose the disease (Aydemir, 2015).
Borderline Personality Disorder can be confused with other diseases because of its many similarities. It is considered normal to be confused with other disorders. A careful process in the diagnosis process will be important in terms of preventing confusion (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
People with common features of Borderline Personality Disorder and Histrionic Personality Disorder exploit everyone around them in line with their interests in order to achieve their goals in both disorders. The important point to consider in order to distinguish these two disorders from each other is that the person talks about the feeling of emptiness and suicidal thoughts (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
When Narcissistic Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorders are examined, anger is seen very rapidly and more than it should be shown in both disorders (Kernberg, 1975).
Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder are also included in the same cluster in the DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Application Manual, and they seem to have similar characteristics in terms of their characteristic features (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
When Dependent Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder are examined, it can be seen that there is an overreaction to abandonment in both personality disorders and anxiety that occurs with the thought of abandonment (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
When psychosis and borderline personality disorder were evaluated, it was observed that patients with borderline personality disorder had signs of dissolution, symptoms of a certain level of perceptual disorder, or thoughts of paranoid content in certain times and situations. Considering these situations, the person can be diagnosed with psychosis (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
Other Conditions to Consider and Borderline Personality Disorder
When viewed in terms of life style with tides, which are typical characteristics of adolescence, it is seen that it is similar to the diagnostic criteria of Borderline Personality Disorder and may cause confusion (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
Before the individual starts the treatment process, the diagnosis must be made meticulously. One of the difficulties that can be experienced in the diagnosis process is the presence of Border Personality Disorder and other disorders and behavioral habits such as eating disorders or substance use (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
As previously stated in the DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Reference Manual, Borderline Personality Disorder diagnostic criteria, it is a state of fluctuating between two extreme thoughts such as excessive love or, on the contrary, hating, exalting or vilifying. These people are very likely to experience depression, as the reason for this; It negatively affects the communication of the person with the people around him, and the same situation also affects his approach towards himself (Orçunlular, 2016).
Risk factors that play an important role in the development of borderline personality; biological reasons, separation from parents, exposure to domestic violence, adoption, criminal history in one or more of the family members, exposure to inappropriate parental behaviors and attitudes, risk factors occurring at the time of birth, presence of psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives, anxiety disorders depression and suicidal tendencies, childhood abuses (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016)
Borderline Personality Disorder focuses on a few key points; Variability and marked impulsivity in interpersonal relationships, self-perception, and affect. At first, their perceptions of themselves differ, and while they see themselves as very beautiful, hardworking and intelligent, they may perceive themselves as very insignificant and useless because of their suddenly changing emotions and thoughts. The fact that people diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder receive little attention from their caregivers in their childhood may have negative consequences. On the contrary, it shows that the result of being under intense and oppressive control during childhood, preventing the development of autonomy by restricting independence, and the inability to make certain definitions for one’s self can result in the same way (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).