one- Ejaculation: It is not an effective method. It is completely under the control of men.
2- Washing after contact: This is not an effective method either. Because even 90 seconds after the man ejaculates, sperm can be found in the cervix.
3- Male condom: It is a method that can be used both in terms of being economical, providing protection and protecting from sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV). The presence of spermicidal chemicals in the condom further increases its effectiveness. The disadvantage is the risk of rupture and change of direction inside the vagina. The risk of becoming pregnant with a condom is between 2 and 15%.
4- Female condom: used by women. The open-ring part is applied to the deepest part of the vagina, and the closed-ring part is applied to the vaginal entrance. The risk of getting pregnant is between 2-3%. Its advantage is 95% protection from sexually transmitted infectious diseases (such as HIV).
5- Vaginal diaphragm: It is not a very effective method. There is a 2 to 20% risk of getting pregnant. It is difficult to use.
6- Spermicidal creams and gels:In these, the risk of pregnancy may appear to be 15%.
NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS
one- Calendar Method:It is based on the principle of sexual abstinence between the 11th and 15th days (ovulation days), counting from the first day of menstrual bleeding.
2- Body temperature method: Normally, body temperature rises 24 hours after ovulation. Based on this principle, it is based on sexual abstinence 2 days before and 3 days after the temperature rise.
3- According to the consistency of cervical discharge: before ovulation the vaginal discharge is clear as water (estrogen effect), after ovulation; The current is dark and thick. It is based on sexual abstinence within 3 days when the discharge starts to darken.
BIRTH CONTROL Pills
Birth control pills may adversely affect the milk production of women who are breastfeeding their babies in terms of quantity and quality at the beginning. This effect is even less in low hormone dose pills used today. It was determined that the milk yield period of women who use pills is shorter than women who do not use these pills. On the other hand, no adverse effects in terms of illness, intelligence or psychological disorder were found on babies who were breastfeeding from mothers who used birth control pills.
It is a scientifically proven fact that breastfeeding is a form of birth control among the public. However, this protection is only valid for mothers who are fully breastfeeding, that is, breastfeeding at regular intervals (every 4-6 hours), including at night, and who do not give additional nutrition to their babies, and for the first 6 months. In these conditions, the protection of breastfeeding against pregnancy approaches that of birth control pills (98%). The most reliable protection is seen in the first 10 weeks of breastfeeding in the above-mentioned conditions. The decrease in the baby’s sucking power and frequency reduces the protective effect of breastfeeding.
It should be noted that birth control pills to be used after delivery contain low-dose estrogen (20 micrograms). Breastfeeding women can start taking these pills after the 6th week after birth, and non-breastfeeding women can start after the 3rd week. If a significant decrease in milk production is observed after taking birth control pills in lactating women, switching to another method of contraception should be considered. We do not use these pills in smoking women over the age of 35 because of their possible side effects. Birth control pills can be started immediately after abortion or termination of pregnancy before 12 weeks, and 2 weeks after abortion and termination of larger pregnancies. These pills are protective against ovarian and uterine cancer.
Intra-uterine device (IUD) and intra-uterine system (RIS)
The IUDs used today are T-shaped and have a copper-containing structure on top. This small and flexible device is painlessly inserted into the uterus during a routine gynecological examination. It can remain in the uterus for 10 years. The environment it creates here is both lethal to the sperm and, if the sperm has united with the egg, it prevents the embryo formed from adhering to the uterus. In this way, it provides protection against pregnancy. A newer type of these are the hormone-releasing IUDs. The added advantage of these is that they reduce the amount of blood lost during menstruation. The hormone-releasing IUD can stay in the uterus for 5 years. The protection of IUDs against pregnancy is around 97%. It can be worn from the 6th week following birth. In about 10-15% of cases, there is a rate of removal within the first year due to complaints such as pain or increased bleeding or irregularity.
HORMONE RELEASE SPIRALS (MIRENA=INTERNAL SYSTEM)
It is an intrauterine spiral used for both birth control and treatment purposes in women with uterine fibroids or excessive menstrual bleeding. Contains depot progesterone (52 mg levonogestril). It provides protection because it both prevents ovulation and thins the inner wall of the uterus and thickens the cervical mucus. At the same time, thanks to the progesterone it contains, it has very useful areas of use in women with intrauterine fibroids, intrauterine overgrowth (hyperplasia) or excessive bleeding with normal spirals. The time of insertion is the period of menstrual bleeding. Since the cervix will be closed on other days, it should be inserted with general anesthesia.
Abortion (TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY)
According to the law enacted in 1983, all women who are of age up to 10 weeks or who are underage with the permission of their parents or parents can terminate their pregnancies with an abortion operation. Common method; vacuum abortion. The 10-week period mentioned above is the 70-day period from the first day of the last menstrual period.
STERILIZATION (CONNECTION OF TUBES)
In this method, which is 97-99% protective against pregnancy, the patient’s tubes are made unable to pass sperm and eggs through a small operation. This is a definitive solution that is not very reversible. Therefore, it is necessary to think very carefully before applying this method. It is generally recommended for women over the age of 30 and who have completed the number of children they want. The most successful method is the method of cutting and ligating the tubes during the cesarean section or within the first 24 hours following the normal birth. In the method performed within the first 24 hours, it is applied with a small incision of 3 cm width just below the umbilical cord. Alternatively, the tubes can be burned from the 6th week following birth with the laparoscopic (closed surgery with small incisions) method, or they can be compressed and closed by applying a clip. The success of the clip method is slightly less than the others, but it is the method that has the highest chance of getting pregnant again if the patient changes his mind in the future and wants to have his tubes opened.