Benign bone tumors; exostosis, osteochondroma

The growth of bones occurs with growth plates (epiphyseal plate). Sometimes, osteochondroma may develop due to growth plate residues in any part of the bones. It often grows perpendicular to the bone of origin. It can be seen in only one bone or in more than one bone. When seen in more than one bone, it is called osteochondromatosis or multiple hereditary exostosis.

It is often noticed for the first time at the age of 6-20 years. As the name suggests, it consists of cartilage and bone tissue. The outermost part is cartilage. Beneath the cartilage is bone tissue. It is not possible to distinguish the bone and cartilage tissue of osteochondroma from normal bone and cartilage.

Because it is associated with the growth plate, the osteochondroma grows as the child grows in size. During periods of rapid growth, the osteochondroma also grows rapidly. It is basically a benign lesion.

If the diagnosis of osteochondroma is made in childhood and it does not cause any complaints in the child, it is followed. Because cartilage tissue is very active during this period and there is a possibility of recurrence in cases where it cannot be removed as a whole. In addition, in childhood, the lesion may be very close to the growth plate and may be damaged during surgery. However, if the osteochondroma has started to compress the vascular nerve package during this period or if it has caused bending in the adjacent bones, surgery can be applied. After growth is complete, the osteochondroma stops growing. During this period, monitoring can be continued or surgery can be performed. If the osteochondroma enlarges or causes pain after the growth is completed, it should be suspected that a malignant tumor has developed on the basis of the osteochondroma. Malignant tumors (often chondrosarcoma) formed on the basis of osteochondroma are seen at a rate of one percent and occur around the age of 30. Osteochondromas formed on the trunk are more likely to turn into malignant ones. The osteochondromon does not become malignant, but a part of it does. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to diagnose with biopsy. The diagnosis is made by considering all the radiological findings, examination findings, history and pathological findings. Its treatment is extensive removal of that part (together with the surrounding normal tissue).

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