Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

ADHD is a psychiatric disorder that manifests itself with symptoms of hyperactivity, attention problems, and inability to delay cravings. However, these are symptoms that we can all show from time to time in our daily lives. For this reason, in order for ADHD to be diagnosed based on these symptoms, the mentioned symptoms must be more severe than those seen in the normal person, affecting the daily life of the individual, and must persist for a certain period of time.

There are three subtypes of ADHD;

  • Only those with attention problems

  • Only those with hyperactivity-impulsivity problems,

  • Those with both attention and hyperactivity-impulsivity problems (combined type).

The hyperactivity dimension of ADHD refers to situations in which the person is significantly more active compared to their peers. In addition, hyperactivity is mentioned when this mobility creates problems for the child, family or teachers in daily functions.

Symptoms such as difficulty in concentrating attention, being easily distracted by external stimuli, forgetfulness, losing one’s belongings or toys frequently, and disorder suggest attention problems in the individual.

Features such as haste, not being able to postpone requests, responding very quickly to questions, interrupting others and having difficulty in waiting for their turn are features that show the dimension of impulsivity.

In order for a person to be called ADHD, the symptoms must have started before the age of 7, continued for at least 6 months, and seen in at least two areas.

ADHD is seen in one out of every 10 children. The incidence in boys is higher than in girls. On the other hand, while the hyperactivity-impulsivity dimension is more dominant in boys, the attention-deficit type is more prevalent in girls.

No brain film, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, neurofeedback or similar procedures are used to diagnose ADHD. For this, it is necessary to consult with parents, children and teachers and obtain information, evaluate the results of various assessment tools (intelligence test, neuropsychological tests, etc.), observe the child, and conduct a detailed medical examination.

There are some well-known misconceptions about ADHD. One of these misconceptions is the belief that ADHD stems from faulty parental attitudes. However, parents’ faulty attitudes can only lead to an increase in ADHD symptoms or the addition of other psychiatric problems. Another mistake is to believe that ADHD will improve as the child gets older. ADHD is not a condition that will go away on its own with growth. It should be diagnosed as early as possible and intervened effectively.

Children with ADHD are criticized by their teachers or parents for being hasty, unable to wait in line, not following the rules, always seeming to want what they want, jumping from game to game, not being able to concentrate, not being organized, constantly losing something, not completing the tasks they have started, or being fidgety; They face situations such as being ostracized by their friends. As a result, they begin to show features such as introversion, shyness or irritability and aggression.

Studies have shown that people with ADHD are more likely to engage in risky behaviors because they do not think about the consequences of their behavior, they are more involved in accidents, and they experience problems in their friendships. It is possible to prevent all these and to see that they are adapting with the cooperation of teachers, parents, school psychologists, psychiatrists, etc. to support the child. For this, first of all, it is necessary to accept that these individuals are not “problematic” but “different”.

Although there are various approaches for the treatment of ADHD, it is accepted that the most effective treatment method is multi-system treatments. Accordingly, in addition to drug treatment, it is the determination of the most appropriate options for the person receiving treatment, such as behavioral intervention and informing the parents, and applying these treatments together. It would be the best approach to get support from an expert in order to determine the appropriate options.

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