Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

1-Inability to deal with a single job for a long time

2-Can’t focus for a long time

3- Having forgetfulness in daily activities

4-Excessive activity, inability to stay still, inability to concentrate

5-Impulsivity

6-Impulsivity, acting without thinking about the consequences

HISTORY OF ADHD

In 1902, G. Still and Alfred Tredgold first introduced the definition of “impulsivity and attention disorder”. This is how it first began to be defined scientifically as a disease. That’s why ADHD, which you’ve heard a lot lately, is not like a new disease that has increased recently. ADHD is a disease that has existed for 100 years. At that time, at first, there is impulsiveness and impaired attention. In the 1920s, just after the First World War, the attention problems they saw in patients who had this surgery, and the problems there, is this an organic syndrome? Or do you have a brain disorder? They thought. Because the control of attention and impulses works under the frontal prefrontal cortex at the front of the brain. So I wonder if it’s because of a problem there.

After a brain inflammation, they saw problems in behavior. And they called it minimal brain damage syndrome. Organic brain syndrome was first diagnosed in the 1920s and then they called it minimal brain damage syndrome. They understood that there was no damage to the brain damage syndrome over time. none.

In 1962, Clements and Peters call it Minimal Brain Dysfunction. So they say that there is a problem with the fine tuning of the brain with this disease. Dysfunction means a kind of dysfunction.

In 1968 they called it Childhood Hyperkinetic Syndrome. Hyperkinesis means increased movement. That’s why they call it hyperkinetic syndrome. They do not know the lack of attention at that time.

That’s why it’s only in the 1980s that the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder begins to emerge. So now they say it as conditions with Attention Deficit Disorder (+/- hyperactivity).

1987: DSM-III-R (revised) -The period when it entered the books as attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

1994: DSM-IV

2000: DSM-IV-TR

2013: DSM-V appears as ADHD (AD/HA/DE+HA) with newly emerging Subtypes, Attention Deficit subtype, Hyperactivity subtype, and a combination of both. The fact that it started under the age of 12 has been changed here. Previously, it was under the age of 6.

DSM-V CRITERIA

A. 1- Six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months, to a degree that is correct and contrary to developmental level of non-adherence:

a) Often fails to pay attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities.

b-Most of the time, he gets distracted in the tasks he undertakes or in the activities he plays. (you give a task and you see that while doing that job, he starts different things, for example, he starts the lesson, goes, goes, goes to talk to his parents, so we understand that he can’t keep his attention)

c- Most of the time, it seems like he doesn’t listen when spoken to directly. A condition called selective attention. On the one hand, he does not pay much attention to what you are talking about. 2. On the one hand, he does not pay much attention to what you are talking about. Secondly, they become more attentive to the things they like, which we call selective attention. When we are motivated, the dopamine level increases. When you do something you love, your dopamine level increases. And if the dopamine level increases, the attention span starts to increase. Attention Even those who lack it, when you give them a job they love, if it is not long and complicated, they will continue it very fondly and they will be much more careful.)

d) Often does not follow directions and fails to complete schoolwork, chores, or duties at work (not due to oppositional disorder or failure to understand directions).

f- Often avoids, dislikes or is reluctant to take part in tasks that require constant mental effort. Therefore, there is no need to pay much attention. But if you ask, he will not remember the parts of the game because it passes quickly.)

h-Most of the time, his attention is easily distracted by external stimuli. (We are sitting here, there is a sound from outside, his attention is immediately directed there and he cannot continue his work again, he starts to forget. This is actually the inability to divert attention. He goes there, comes back again, but does not remember what was said)

i- He is often forgetful in his daily activities (notebook, pen, book, passwords…)

g-Most of the time he forgets what is necessary for the tasks or activities he undertakes. (eg toys, school assignments, pens, books or tools)

A.2- Six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:

A-Most of the time, his hands and feet are fidgety and he keeps fidgeting in his seat.

B- Often gets up from seat in class or in other situations where sitting is expected.

c-Most of the time, he runs around or climbs in inappropriate situations. (We cannot see the adolescent running, but we see that he cannot stay still.)

D- Often has difficulty calmly participating in leisure activities or playing games. (They play very loudly, he has a disorder in expressing the emotion he has experienced.)

E-Most often in motion or pretending to be driven by a motor.

F-She talks a lot most of the time.

Impulsivity (impulsivity)-impulsivity

A- Most of the time, he/she pastes the answer before the question is completed. (How many siblings do you say 3 says. Actually, how many siblings were you going to say, maybe your mother. Answers before the question is completed)

B- Often has difficulty waiting their turn.

C- Often interrupts or intrudes on others.

D. These symptoms cause significant impairment in functioning in school, social, etc. areas.

E. These symptoms are not better explained by another psychiatric illness.

*The inattention subgroup has less emotional and behavioral problems, but more academic problems. As you can imagine, there is only attention deficit. There is no such thing as hyperactivity and impulsivity.

*Behavioral problems are more prominent in hyperactive-impulsive ones. They are very active. But they experience very serious behavioral and emotional problems because of this hyperactivity.

-Age should be evaluated according to IQ and level of development. The muscle development of a 6-month-old baby born prematurely is to stand up. A 2-2.5-year-old baby’s attention span begins to sit only at the age of 2-2.5 years. Can it be explained by birth and late development? If it’s explainable, then he doesn’t get ADHD. They don’t remember. The attention span increases with age, and it reaches 12 years old.

-The most common auditory attention problem.

-The attention span increases with age (up to 12 years old). The fastest development period is between the ages of 4-5.

These children cannot concentrate enough on the game at the age of play, they have difficulty in listening to lessons, following the writings on the board, keeping the homework in mind, following the given commands, and arranging their daily schedules.

HOW AGE IS THE GAME AGE? 3-7 years old. After the age of 7, school age begins. All evaluations go through these ages and these intervals are very important. We must know very well the normal development of a child so that we can find the abnormal. It is very important how Freud and Ericson divide them according to age groups. We define which symptoms are normal and which are abnormal according to them.

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