Appliances used in orthodontics

Appliances used in orthodontic treatment; It can be divided into two groups as extraoral and intraoral appliances.

ORAL APPLIANCES

1) Headgear: It is used in cases where the maxillary development is excessive, both to curb the development of the maxilla and to move the upper teeth back. It should be used during the growth and development period to achieve skeletal effect.
 

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2)Reverse headgear, Face mask: It is used to bring the upper jaw and upper teeth forward in cases where the maxillary development is insufficient. The most suitable period to achieve skeletal effect is around 9-11 years of age. It is thought to be more effective when applied with maxillary enlargement.
 

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3)Chin cup: It is used to slow down the growth and direct it backwards in cases where the lower jaw development is excessive. It should be used as soon as it is noticed that the lower jaw is large. However, it is not very effective in extreme cases.
 

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INTRA-ORAL APPLIANCES

These appliances can be classified as removable appliances, functional appliances, rapid expansion appliances and retention appliances.

1) Movable appliances: They are generally used to obtain simple tooth movements in the mixed dentition period. Slow expansion appliance, cross appliance, distalization appliance can be given as examples.
 

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2) Functional appliances: They are used to direct the growth of the jaws during the growth and development period. There are movable and fixed ones.

2.1) Movable functional appliances: The disadvantage is that they can be put on and taken off by the patient. However, with these appliances, more skeletal effects are obtained than fixed ones.
Monoblock:It is a parey that is used in cases where the lower jaw is behind or has a chin tilt and is in one piece and grips both jaws.
 

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Twin Block:It is a two-piece appliance used to bring the lower jaw forward in cases where the lower jaw is behind.
 

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2.2)Fixed functional appliances:Being stable is an advantage, but skeletal effect is more difficult to achieve.

Forsus fatgu: It is a fixed functional appliance whose active element is a spring. It is applied through the wires in the lower and upper arc.
 

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Herbs: It is a rigid appliance consisting of a piston system. It is applied by crowning the teeth.
 

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Jasper Jumper:It is a fixed functional appliance consisting of a flexible spring.
 

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Quick expander: It is used to expand the upper jaw skeletally in cases where the upper jaw is narrow. Between the ages of 9-15 is the period when the appliance is most effective. Although it can be used at later ages, dental effect is obtained rather than skeletal effect as age progresses.
 

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Retention appliances:They are used to prevent the teeth from returning to their former positions after orthodontic treatment.
Lingual Retainer (LR): They are fixed wires attached to the back of the teeth. It is difficult to clean, but it is an advantage that it is not dependent on patient use. It should be kept in the mouth for at least 5 years, and it is suitable for a lifetime.
 

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Hawley: It is a moving plate made of acrylic. The fact that it is not fixed makes it easy to clean, but requires patient cooperation. It is generally appropriate to use for 2 years after treatment. the first 8 months; all day (24 hours), next 8 months; at night (12 hours), also in the last 8 months; It is suitable to use 1 in 2 nights (12 hours).
 

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Essix Plaque: It is a transparent plaque made of Essix material. They are easy to make, aesthetic, patient cooperation appliances. It is preferred by patients because of its transparency.
 

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positioner: It is an appliance used especially for consolidation of functional treatments. It is a transparent plate that is in one piece and grips both jaws.
 

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