Anger is often an emotional response to unsatisfied wishes and desires, unexpected and undesirable results, and unmet expectations. Anger, like all other emotions, is a constructive emotion that improves communication between individuals when it is expressed in a natural, universal and healthy way, and when it can be controlled and managed well. However, it is an emotion that has the potential to turn into destructive reactions by reflecting on behaviors in an uncontrollable and destructive way. In the event that basic physiological needs are not met, negative emotions occur in the individual. Anger is also included in these negative emotions. If the feeling of anger gets out of control and reaches an unstoppable form, it can have devastating consequences. People who are trying to cope with the feeling of anger should first be aware of and understand what causes anger, its main source and how they can show it. This research provides information about what anger is, what its symptoms are, what causes anger, how to control it, and coping strategies, and it is thought that researches on this subject will make positive contributions to the field.
Key words:anger, anger management, inhibition, rejection, provocation.
Anger is often an emotional response to unsatisfied wishes and desires, unexpected and undesirable results, and unmet expectations. Anger, like all other emotions, is a constructive emotion that improves communication between individuals when it is expressed naturally, universally and healthy, and when it can be controlled and managed well. However, it is an emotion that has the potential to turn into destructive reactions by reflecting on behaviors in an uncontrollable and destructive way. In the event that basic physiological needs are not met, negative emotions occur in the individual. Anger is also included in these negative emotions. If the feeling of anger gets out of control and reaches an unstoppable form, it can have devastating consequences. People who are trying to cope with the feeling of anger must first be aware of and understand what causes anger, its main source and how they can show it. This research provides information about what anger is, what its symptoms are, what causes anger, how to control it, and coping strategies, and it is thought that the researches on this subject will make positive contributions to the field.
Keywords:anger, anger management, inhibition, rejection, provocation.
FEELING OF ANGRY
What is Anger?
Emotions cause the individual to feel good or bad, but they are not sufficient to evaluate the individual as good or bad when evaluating the individual as a human being. In order for the individual to feel positive, his basic physiological needs such as food, shelter and protection must be met. In the event that basic physiological needs are not met, negative emotions occur in the individual. Anger is also included in these negative emotions (Yeğin, 2010).
Anger, which does not show itself under normal conditions, is an innate potential emotion like all other emotions in humans (Marx, 1976; Eroğlu & İrdem, 2016).
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), anger (anger) is defined as an emotion characterized by hostility towards something or someone that gives the feeling that they have done wrong intentionally (Eroğlu & İrdem, 2016).
Psychology includes the feeling of anger within the subject of excitement. Excitement is feelings that are experienced intensely and cause tension and exuberance in the individual. As a result of this excitement experienced in the individual, mental and physical balance also deteriorates. Anger is the individual’s reactions to frustration, hurt, aggression, anger and rage (Morgan, 1980; Yeğin, 2010).
Anger is often an emotional response to unsatisfied wishes and desires, unexpected and undesirable results, and unmet expectations. Anger, like all other emotions, is a constructive emotion that improves communication between individuals when it is expressed in a natural, universal and healthy way, and when it can be controlled and managed well. However, it is an emotion that has the potential to turn into destructive reactions by reflecting on behaviors in an uncontrollable and destructive way (Soykan, 2003; Eroğlu & İrdem, 2016).
Anger is a very active emotion in our daily life. If we consider the current situation of the world for now, difficult life conditions, the individual’s safety and health and life security are not at a sufficient level, the individuals’ economic level is not sufficient, it is difficult to meet the conditions, and with it, they become helpless and distressed and hindered. The fact that the individual is blocked as a result of these situations causes anger in himself. We can state that anger occurs in three ways; it is formed against the person himself, other individuals and the outside world (Soykan, 2003).
We can express the role and function of anger in our daily life as follows; Anger is an outward emotional reaction that is not abnormal and must be for the continuity of life. Anger is an emotion that creates a stimulating effect on the individual. Anger is an emotion that warns the individual against internal and external threats and allows the individual to be protected from these threats. Anger is an emotion that benefits the individual as long as it can be brought under control, otherwise it harms the individual and the environment when it cannot be brought under control. Anger is a kind of power and motivation that arouses interest and curiosity in innovations and learning. In order for anger to be a beneficial and harmless emotion in the individual, it should not be denied, accepted, not suppressed in itself, it should be known what the emotion is and should be revealed in a controlled manner. The feeling of anger, which is approved by the individual, whose existence and existence can be named, is a beneficial situation (Soykan, 2003).
In our daily life, anger is not a solution or tool for our problems. It should not be used in the form of taking revenge on the other person, hurting him, blaming him or showing violence. It is not a way to control the people around us, to be justified while being wrong, to commit crimes, to harm different individuals (Soykan, 2003).
Theoretical Approaches to Anger
We can benefit from many theoretical approaches to make sense of the emotion of anger. evolutionary approaches; Based on the Darwinian understanding of emotion, aiming to make sense of the biological and adaptive symptoms of anger, he argues that like all emotions, it is acquired at birth and is universal. Ekman (1973) argues that the emotion of anger is a spontaneous reaction of the organism against any intimidation, which is perceived as a struggle for life. This reaction explains the emotion of anger as a humane emotion since it is observed in various cultures in close ways (Dilekler, Ceremony, & Selvi, 2014). . To state James’ thoughts, “feeling”, which is his familiar connection to emotion and attention, is a bodily reaction. In Aristotle’s thought, emotion is a more or less intelligent form of cognition of an event manifested in relation to a passion. Contemporary debates continue with many changes in these two theories in terms of process and structure (Şahin, 2005).
Social constructivists, who are against the evolutionary approach, state that emotions are the result of social relations. They state that the meanings given to emotions in the social sense are a convenient approach to make sense of how anger is experienced. In a study carried out with Thomas (2007); The individual’s anger level is constantly linked to situational triggers and the physical and relational consequences of anger. It is stated that neglected disappointments and facing communication other than the level of respect are among the triggers. It has been revealed that people who constantly have a high level of anger have a high need to explain their anger levels physically and verbally despite these triggers. On the other hand, people with low level of constant anger are explained in a way that creates anger in the opposite way, which makes interpersonal interactions more positive. Individuals with consistently high levels of anger are less likely to be frustrated and experience negative lives in which anger is explained, and interpersonal problems are more common. This study shows us that individuals’ experiencing anger in various forms is related to many variables in social relations.
According to the cognitive approach; Anger is a theoretical approach that aims to create the individual’s interest in cognitive time, which takes place in the examination of himself, others and life. According to this idea, based on the thought of inhibition and aggression in the past, it argues that anger consists of negative thoughts that are not compatible with the goals of the individual, and after anger, a predisposition occurs based on aggressive actions. Later, this idea is re-examined and a new structure is revealed. This structure, on the other hand, an involuntary situation can cause negative affect in the individual, and this negative affect makes the attack and distance reactions active in the individual. If the individual is focused on attacking, he or she feels anger and this emotion creates anger potential by passing through different cognitive examinations and causal references. Cognitive clinical theory also takes into account the opinions of individuals about anger, and the situations that cause frustration, hinder or humiliate anger; It suggests that cognitive tenses, actions such as opposition, aggression, and withdrawal, and emotional impulses are effective. The psychoanalytic theory is; He talks about the importance of sexual and destructive motives that are not satisfied with the feeling of anger. Because of the unconscious psychological conflicts that occur as a result of these unsaturated motives, anger can be changed by defense mechanisms while reaching the level of consciousness, or it can appear directly as aggressive actions. The emotion of anger also adopts a warning task that transforms unconscious defense mechanisms into behavior, protecting the individual against internal stimuli and allowing the preparation of emotions. Another function is to allow purification. However, if it causes the external truth to be distorted and is expressed in a destructive way, it loses its competence (Dilekler, Ceremony, & Selvi, 2014).
Factors that Activate Anger
Experts attach importance to the diversity of factors that cause anger. Such factors lead to inhibition. Block; Desire, need, or preventing an action from reaching its goal. If it needs to be explained in a different way, it is defined as the negative affect that occurs in the process of preventing the fulfillment of an object that the person desires, a certain goal that he wants to reach, or the fulfillment of his needs. Every action, event or individual that will prevent the individual from enjoying it reveals the reason for the feeling of anger. The situation related to aggression that occurs due to frustration is envy and hostility caused by jealousy. Another cause of anger is provocation behavior. Provocation is the situation that pushes the person to any behavior. Another cause of anger is rejection. An increase in the feeling of anger is observed in the process when the individual is faced with the situation of rejection in every age group. Anger is also seen in situations such as disturbing and unwelcome stimuli, role modeling, dissatisfaction, disrespect for individual freedom and personality, and lack of respect for environmental values. Anger can occur for two main reasons. It can consist of the emotions created by the person himself (internal reasons) first, and the people in the environment (external reasons) secondly (Yeğin, 2010).
The reasons why people experience anger and the level of ignoring these reasons differ from person to person. This difference is due to the individual having various characters. Some individuals seem to be angry in nature. Such individuals are very delicate, get angry quickly, react to wrongdoing, are consistent and stubborn. Such situations are related to the person himself. To be detailed; Anxieties, obsessions and situations that bring out the anger of the person. It is natural for the individual to be angry, and it causes physical problems (Yeğin, 2010).
It is stated as the situations that occur due to the socio-cultural structure without the will of the person. The effect on the individual varies. This situation is directly related to the perception and desire of the individual at that time. Extremism, dishonesty, etc. situations such as verbal or physical provocation against the belief and moral thoughts of the individual, etc. situations, it causes anger in the individual. Not only the negative approaches to the individual, but also the negative behaviors towards the individuals he values and loves around him, cause the individual to feel anger. According to the social learning theory, anger is learned by observing learning, repetition, adopting and imitating behaviors (Yeğin, 2010).
Symptoms of Anger
There are three main substructures that cause us to express the feeling of anger. These; cognitive, physiological and behavioral. Cognitive structure is a form of explanation that includes mechanisms related to anger, such as hope and thoughts. Physiological structure deals with the individual’s difference in limbic system and blood pressure. Behavioral structure, on the other hand, is a form of learned anger that includes grudge and aggression. These three structures explain the anger situation in relation to each other. When a person becomes a part of an unexpected, sudden and various event, he is faced with conditions such as contraction in the organism, hardening of the body, increase in heart rate, and dilated pupils. This is called the startle reaction. The severity of the feeling of anger differs according to the size of the obstacle and the importance of the motivation to be satisfied. If we explain the situation where the feeling of anger is seen most clearly;
During the period of anger, eyebrows are frowned, neck veins become prominent, pupils enlarge, face and eyes become red, nostrils enlarge, and trembling on the lips.
Symptoms in the Mouth
Thickening of the tone of voice, making heavy sentences with insults and slang, clenching teeth, trembling on the lips, etc. symptoms occur.
Symptoms in the Heart
The secretion of the hormone adrenaline, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, trembling of the hands, etc. symptoms occur (Yeğin, 2010).
Emotions Related to Anger
When the researches are examined, it is seen that there is a significant connection between the feeling of anger and the other emotions that the person has experienced. Anger formation is directly proportional to the anxiety experienced by the person, the feeling of guilt, the severity of depression, the sexual life of the person and also the addictions of the person (Fava et al., 1990; Soykan, 2003). Looking at the moments when people experience anger, it is seen that the feeling of anger occurs as a result of the actual emotions and events that the person has experienced. In other words, it is very important for people’s awareness that the feeling of anger is actually secondary emotions that occur in the person, and that it is an emotion that emerges after the main emotions such as anxiety, fear, loneliness, rejection, resentment, disappointment, which the person has experienced and felt (Gordon, 1999; Soykan). , 2003). To explain in the simplest way, the feeling of anger is actually an emotion that the person shows as a result of the anger that he has suppressed for a long time (Soykan, 2003).
In some psychotic disorders in the person, it is possible to create a feeling of chronic anger in the person. Diseases such as bipolar disorder, substance and alcohol addiction, and depression are examples of these. In addition to the aforementioned psychotic disorders, the feeling of anger can also be seen in cases such as the grief process the person has experienced and the presence of a chronic and painful physical illness (Soykan, 2003).
The feeling of extreme anger experienced by the person can lead to violent behavior towards both others and himself. These violent behaviors can also manifest themselves nonverbally (Speilberger et al., 1995; Soykan, 2003). Violent behaviors that occur in the person and the psychological violence that he/she shows verbally cannot be prevented anymore and may cease to be under the control of the person. In such cases, one should be very careful because the situation can have serious consequences. It is necessary to be self-sacrificing about the issue in order not to cause severe consequences with the feeling of anger and violent behaviors that are no longer under the control of the person, and at the same time, awareness should be taken care of in order to prevent it (Soykan, 2003).
Many studies have been conducted on the feeling of anger experienced by the person and the feelings of anger shown to the other party. In these studies, it is said that the reason for feelings of anger and feelings of anger and hostility mostly occurs after an event that has become continuous (Berkowtz, 1993; Soykan, 2003). Very important health problems can be encountered in people who display hostile attitudes towards their surroundings and often act angry. These health problems may primarily be psychosomatic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, anxiety disorder and fatigue, as well as stomach diseases and chronic headaches (Tavris, 1989; Soykan, 2003). In previous studies, it has been stated that individuals who harbor hostility and anger towards others become individuals with high blood pressure, overweight, alcohol and substance use more than those who do not have anger problems after 20 years (Soykan, 2003).
Anger, which is preventable and controllable, can also be at the root of violent acts that cannot be prevented from time to time and may cause legal problems. It is necessary to make the feeling of anger in the person controllable without creating situations that will create a forensic crime (Soykan, 2003).
When the feeling of anger cannot be dealt with; It can cause serious problems, social and individual problems, deterioration of interpersonal communication, negative effects on one’s family and business life, and various disorders such as depression, eating disorders, anxiety, and substance abuse. In order to provide anger control and to use anger in the right place and in a healthy way, it is necessary to accept the anger emotion and be conscious of the emotion. Some people have chronically perpetuated the feeling of anger they have experienced in their lives. Some people have digested the feeling of anger they experience within themselves and act as if they do not exist by denying its existence. Some people, on the other hand, tried to digest the anger they experienced at first, suppressed it for a while, but later experienced larger bursts of anger. It is seen that the methods used by people who try to manage their anger in these ways do not produce healthy results and at the same time seriously affect the living standards of people (Soykan, 2003).
There are more than the methods people prefer when expressing the intense anger they experience to the other party. In this regard, people who are trying to cope with the feeling of anger must first be aware of and understand what causes anger, its main source and how they can show it. With various assignments as anger management, it allows the person to recognize the anger they have experienced and makes it easier to perceive the cause of anger. In other words, awareness studies can be carried out to make them realize that anger is not a method in order to take revenge on the other person by displaying hostile attitudes, to choose to emphasize that he is guilty and that he is right, and to display violent behaviors that may lead to crime. People who realize that the purpose of using the said anger is not correct, will now be able to use the methods of expressing anger to the other party in a healthier way. The methods that can be used for the person to express his anger in a healthy way and for the management of this situation vary, but are not limited. The main point to focus on is here; Focusing on the question of what is really necessary for the person in terms of anger management and being aware of the real source of the problem will make it easier for the person to find the method that is suitable for him in a healthier way (Soykan; 2003).
Individual Anger Management
It is very important for the person to be aware of the emotion they have experienced and to know what the main source of anger is in order to express the emotion of anger in a healthy way, which can create violent situations and these situations should be prevented (Soykan, 2003; Eroğlu & İrdem, 2016).
The studies on anger management and its use in healthy ways have started to increase and diversify, and at the same time, the therapy industry has started to show itself in order to provide anger management (Genç, 2007; Eroğlu & İrdem, 2016).
The Institute of Behavioral Sciences offers various methods to prevent destructive effects as a result of the anger that people have experienced and to manage this emotion. These methods are listed as follows:
Relaxation Exercise: When a person experiences intense anger, taking a deep breath and dreaming to relieve him helps to alleviate the feeling of anger. A feeling of anger in a simple and untiring form; It can be calmed by taking a deep breath, repeating words such as “relax” and “calm down” at the event, or by relaxing the muscles that contract in anger with yoga.
Cognitive Restructuring: In the most basic way, it is the individual’s changing the way of thinking. In cases where the feeling of anger is intense, the thoughts of the individuals can be quite striking and dramatic, and more realistic thoughts should be added to the opposite of the striking and dramatic thoughts.
In the moment of anger, individuals should think of sentences such as “I am ruined” “everything is over, what will I do now” “it is very bad” instead of sentences such as “I am aware of the troublesome process I am in right now, but this is not the end of everything, getting angry will not fix anything”. The individual should avoid using absolute words such as “never” and “always”. Because such words not only make the situation chronic, but also develop the idea that there is a just cause for the anger he feels. In order for the person to have a healthier perception, he should be aware of the fact that everything and everyone is not against him in the angry and troubled process he has experienced, and that such situations do not only happen to him, but can happen to anyone at any time.
Problem Solving: Feelings such as anger and disappointment may arise from time to time in situations where the person cannot get out of it, and when the individual does everything to fix the troubled situation he has experienced, but still cannot solve the problem, he should know that the problem is not caused by himself and should not blame himself. He will be more patient if he thinks that he is doing his best for the problem instead of blaming himself and paying the price when he is unable to resolve the distressing situation.
Better Communication: The first thing one should do in a discussion in anger is to slow down and review their reactions. In order to alleviate the discussion and prevent it from having devastating consequences, one should stop and calm down instead of expressing what is on his mind at that moment, think about what he really wants to talk about and answer it appropriately. At the same time, he should find the root cause of the anger and give himself and the other person time to respond.
Changing the Social Environment: There may be extreme events and times in the person’s life, and the person may exhibit stressful and angry attitudes during these times. In order to get through the troubled and stressful period in a healthy way, the person can make time planning for the said period.
Suggestion of Patience and Resilience: One of the methods applied in anger management is the abstraction mechanism. For example, sentences such as “there are worse than me” and “there are people in worse situations than me” calm and soothe the person (Eroğlu, 2007; Eroğlu & İrdem, 2016).
Organizational Anger Management
It includes family, work or school life. In order to ground organizational peace in organizational areas such as family, school or work, people need to be able to manage their anger, and there are certain recommendations for this. There is no place for anger and its destructive consequences in organizational and institutional fields. For this reason, managers in the field should be able to apply anger management in order to ensure peace (Ramsey, 2004; Eroğlu & İrdem, 2016). Incentives should be created for employers or employees to have an anger management department in the institution where they work, for all employees to be aware of the existence of such a unit, and also to use the said unit if necessary (Eroğlu & İrdem, 2016).
Looking at the emotion of anger, if the emotion gets out of control and reaches an unstoppable form, it can have very devastating consequences. However, anger is actually a healthy emotion when used where necessary. However, if the person cannot manage their anger and starts to display violent behaviors, the result will be devastating for everyone. In this article, the main themes of anger have been studied. Although the studies conducted with the feeling of anger in question are not sufficient, our level of knowledge on anger and the expression styles of anger remains quite limited. There is no doubt that more research and studies should be conducted on the functionality and usefulness of anger (Soykan, 2003).