Anaphylaxis is a sudden onset, potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction. This systemic reaction occurs with sudden onset and rapidly progressive urticaria and respiratory distress. Prognosis is good if prompt diagnosis and treatment is made. This severe reaction can result in systemic shock and sometimes death. Although anaphylaxis typically occurs within minutes, the reaction can occur as late as 1 hour after re-exposure to the antigen.
Anaphylactic reactions can be caused by a sensitizing drug or any other substance taken orally or systemically exposed. Even very small particles of substances that cause anaphylaxis can cause serious reactions. It should not be forgotten that substances that did not cause any problems when the patient encountered them before may cause anaphylaxis later on. For example, even if the patient has used penicillin before and has not encountered any problems, penicillin may cause a fatal reaction in the next use.
Among these substances, serums, vaccines, allergen extracts, hormones, penicillin and other antibiotics, sulfonamides, salicylates, local anesthetics are counted.
Anaphylaxis is an emergency and treatment must be started immediately. Airway patency should be ensured, early signs of laryngeal edema (hoarseness, whistling and shortness of breath) should be observed, and tracheostomy should be performed if necessary. Vascular access should be opened, while adrenaline injection should be given. People with known serious reactions should carry an adrenaline kit with them. Cortisone is another important drug used in the treatment of anaphylaxis. Meanwhile, the patient should be transported to the emergency room.
To prevent anaphylaxis, the patient is told to avoid known allergens, the person allergic to a particular drug or food should learn to avoid them. Persons allergic to insect bites should not roam in the woods and open areas. Every patient who is a candidate for anaphylaxis should carry a tag showing their allergy.
Upset. Dr. Sevin Karalar