The hand is the most important extension of the brain. It is an aesthetic organ that plays a very important role in implementing what we think, our work, aspects of our personality. As important as it is, it is complex. Because it is complex, there are many intertwined parts in its treatment. Hand surgery; It is the ability to treat all the problems that concern our bones, veins, nerves, tendons and skin at the same time. Therefore, hand surgery; must have knowledge about orthopedics, plastic surgery, vascular surgery, neurosurgery and microsurgery.
What do hand surgeons do?
Hand surgeons deal with fractures of all bones, vascular injuries, nerve injuries, skin and muscle losses, starting from the shoulder and extending to the fingertip. A hand surgeon is obliged to provide surgical treatment that will meet all the needs of the part from the shoulder to the tip of the finger.
Microsurgery is the operation of structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye by making use of the magnifying effect of a specially produced operating microscope. The most important instrument in microsurgery is the microscope. This microscope has been specially manufactured. It allows the tissues to grow 20 times or even more when necessary. The instruments used in microsurgery are also very important. These tools are usually fine-tipped. Thanks to microsurgery, very important operations such as implanting a broken long part or organ transplantation from another part of the body or finger transplantation from foot to hand can be performed. Microsurgery plays an important role in hand surgery. In simple terms, a hand surgeon must be able to repair vessels and nerves under the microscope in order to suture a finger rupture.
Hand is one of the organs that people use most in daily life. For this reason, it is exposed to many accidents. Hand and forearm injuries require early treatment due to damage to nerve, vein, artery and tendon structures caused by work accidents, beatings, and traffic accidents. If this treatment is not done on time, it can lead to loss of most functions. It can even reach the level of injury if the main vessels are damaged. Tendon is a fibrous white stripe or band-shaped structure that extends between the bone and muscle. The tendon transfers the force of motion, which is created by the shortening and contraction of the muscle, to the bone. The bone moves through the joint to which it is attached. When the tendon is cut, this movement cannot be transmitted. Examination of the hand nerves is divided into two. These are sensory functions and motor functions. The purpose of the sensory examination is to determine whether the sensory nerves are damaged. Finger and hand movements are examined in motor examination. Thus, all information is combined and it is determined which structures need treatment. If you are considering having hand surgery, starting a conversation with a hand surgeon should be your first step. Your surgeon will evaluate your condition and
informs you about the treatment. If you decide to have surgery, it will provide you with more detailed information. Where the surgery will be performed, surgical techniques, risks and undesirable results, the healing process and all results are communicated to you. In line with this information, necessary surgery is performed.
Hand surgery topics
-Carpal tunnel syndrome:Nerve compression at wrist level.
-Nerve compression in the forearm and elbow
-Elbow disease: It is a disease that is mostly seen in people who do heavy work and those who do sports. It causes limitation in elbow movements.
-Deterioration of articular cartilage due to upper extremity arthritis
-Upper extremity tumors
-Dupuytren’s Contracture: Dupuytren’s disease; It is a disease caused by the thickening of the layer called “fascia” under the skin, often in the palm of the hand. It can also be seen on the feet and penis. Due to the thickening of the fascia as a result of the disease, wrinkling of the skin and adhesions in the tendons occur. – Rheumatoid Arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints and consequent pain, swelling and damage within the joint over time. It is usually seen in the foot and hand joints. Rheumatoid arthritis may suddenly appear with swelling, pain and temperature increase (inflammation) in more than one joint at the same time. It often starts silently and affects various joints. If a certain joint is involved on the right or left side of the body, inflammation occurs in the same joint on the opposite side. It is typical to start in small joints such as fingers, toes, wrists, elbows and ankles. Joints with inflammation are painful and often stiff, often after awakening or prolonged inactivity. Some patients feel tired and weak in the afternoon. Affected joints can become enlarged and deformed. Contractures develop in some joints and they cannot stay in a certain position and open. Fingers bend towards the little finger. Carpal tunnel syndrome may develop in the swollen wrist. Cysts that can form behind the knee can burst, causing swelling and pain in the feet. In 30-40% of patients, nodules occur under the skin, usually close to the affected joints.
-Congenital Defects: Congenital anomalies of the hand are deformities that are present at birth, affect hand development and cause significant problems in the use of the hand. With the advent of surgical techniques, most of the defects are corrected at a very early age, even during pregnancy in some patients and at the age of 2 or 3 years, waiting for normal development and function of the hand in others.