Advance judgment is based on insufficient information and pre-formed stereotypes. It is generally based on stereotypes. Many of us allow the effects of prejudice in our lives. For example, when we meet a girl, we think her favorite color is pink. This is an example of a harmless and simple provision. However, prejudice causes social problems because of the negative actions it brings. Advance judgment can occur consciously or unconsciously. The person who prejudges others may not realize they are doing it.
So how do we create these provisions? Advance judgment is often based on ignorance. The solution is education, but most people choose to remain ignorant because the provisions make them feel superior. Victims of a particular type of bullying may continue to be bullies themselves. Likewise, if a person has been subject to preconceptions, there is a chance that others will have similar opinions. A bad experience with a person from a particular group can cause the person to think alike about all the people in that group. This is called stereotyping and can lead to bias. Looking for a scapegoat is also an example of a certain kind of prejudice. A person or group can be held responsible for the sins or wrongs of another person or group.
Advance judgment and discrimination are often confused. Although these two concepts are related, they are not the same. Discrimination characterizes the behavior of relatively powerful people towards less powerful people. Advance judgment is a phenomenon that everyone can develop against each other. That is, prejudice is more mental attitude, while discrimination is defined at the level of observable behaviors. In general, the behaviors that follow after the preconception is formed bring discrimination. Making advance judgments can lead to discrimination, but can prevent it without discrimination if the person realizes it and takes steps to prevent it.
Social norms and cultural contexts play an important role in the types of prejudice a person is likely to have. Racism and sexism are types of prejudice that are very prominent and cause social problems. Slavery was formed by the transformation of racist ideas into discrimination that was accepted by the majority and normalized. Beliefs that blacks are inferior, that blacks experience less pain and less emotion, and racist ideas about black behavior have all been used as justifications to support slavery. Sexist ideas about women have led to important social problems such as rape and abuse.
Exposure is a powerful method of countering prejudice. People who spend more time with people different from them are less likely to form biases. Today, especially in America, the fact that white people prefer to live in areas where only white people live is an example that prevents exposure. This discrimination can reinforce and encourage racist attitudes because people with little experience of cultural diversity are more likely to make judgments about it.
Especially therapists have to learn to control their thoughts. Advance judgment can weaken the therapeutic process and harm clients. A therapist’s preconceptions about a group can affect clients’ views. A therapist who harbors these provisions or is unaware of their implications may not recognize the power dynamics in therapy. For example, in family therapy, a preconceived therapist may not realize the power dynamics between men and women. Thus, it fails in managing the therapeutic process.