Adult Attachment

Attachment is called the emotional bond between the baby and the primary caregiver. As soon as the baby is born, he seeks someone to bond with and wants to be firmly attached to him. In this attachment process, babies establish a special bond with the primary caregiver (Sadock, Sadock and Ruiz, 2016). Attachment theory began to appear in the work of the English psychoanalyst Bowlby. Bowlby’s attachment theory states that infants and young children’s relationships with their primary caregivers (usually mothers) play an active role in their future lives. The relationship between the baby and the caregiver plays a role in his later development and personality functions. The fact that the individual has a problem-free relationship with the primary caregiver in early childhood affects attachment positively. Bowlby (1973) mentions three propositions in attachment theory. The first premise is that when an individual is confident that they can find the attachment figure when they need it, they will be less prone to anxiety than someone who for some reason lacks such confidence. The second proposition expresses confidence in the presence or absence of attachment figures during the sensitive period in which this trust develops. This infancy is gradually built up during childhood, adolescence, and these tend to remain relatively unchanged for the rest of life, regardless of expectations. The third proposition concerns real-life experiences. It is the assumption that individuals actually have various expectations of accessibility and responsiveness to attachment figures that develop during their teenage years (Bowlby, 1973). Ainsworth et al. suggest that the mother’s sensitivity to the infant’s signals and needs during the first year of life is an important prerequisite for attachment. Mothers who are slow or inconsistent in responding to their baby’s crying, or mothers who forcefully interfere with their baby, cause more anxious/indecisive children to cry. If the mother constantly rejects the baby’s attempts to establish physical contact, the baby may learn to avoid it (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). In a study, it was observed that there are differences in the way babies cope with the stress of being left alone by their mothers. It has been observed that the majority of securely attached infants, noticing their mother’s absence and not reacting strongly, quickly accept the mother in a warm, relaxed manner when their mother returns. It has been observed that anxious-indecisive babies protest their mother’s departure and cry, and when their mothers return, they find it difficult to calm down and become angry. It was observed that the third group, called shy, did not feel disturbed by their mother’s separation and did not seek physical hugs or relaxation (Cooper, Shaver and Collins, 1998). Hazan and Shaver (1987) also discussed adult attachment with a two-dimensional scale. The main subject of his research is that possible differences in infant attachment styles are among the determinants of adults’ attachment styles. Hazan and Shaver (1987) discussed adult attachment in three categories, drawing on previous studies; secure, anxious/indecisive, and reserved. Attachment theory underlines interactions with basic attachment figures during infancy and childhood, such as arousing a sense of support and trust, inconsistency in responding to the child’s wishes, arousing anxiety, alertness and anger, or coldness and rejection towards the child (Cooper, Shaver and Collins, 1998). ). Based on these, securely attached adults are likely to establish long-term relationships that are self-confident, socially skilled, open to close relationships with romantic partners, caring, relatively stable, and satisfying. Anxious-ambivalent adults, on the other hand, lack self-confidence; worried about rejection and abandonment; prone to jealousy and tantrums in relationship partnerships perceived as unreliable; Despite their dangers, they are eager to enter into romantic relationships and are more likely to engage in inappropriate candid statements, fall in love quickly and perhaps casually, and experience frequent separation and reunion. Avoidant adults, on the other hand, may or may not be related to close relationships, but are still uncomfortable with intimacy, avoid being involved in long-term romantic relationships, are uncomfortable with self-disclosure, and are socially unqualified, feeling relatively inhibited (Cooper, Shaver and Collins, 1998). A secure individual trying to establish a relationship with an individual may feel challenged, or a shy person may cause their secure partner to act anxious. It cannot be ignored that relationships are complex and powerful phenomena with causal effects beyond being predicted only in personality variables (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). In the following years, Bartholomew et al. (1991) proposed two types of internal working models based on Bowlby’s theory of adult attachment. In this theory, which studies the individual’s own internal self-model and the internal model of others, each internal model is divided into two as positive or negative, and a quadruple attachment model is formed. The quadruple attachment model considered individuals’ attachment styles as four patterns, namely secure, preoccupied, dismissive, and fearful attachment. Securely attached individuals have a sense of worthiness (lovability) and are generally sensitive and accepting of others (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). These individuals have high self-esteem and do not bother to share with others (Çalışır, 2009). In obsessive attachment, the individual sees himself as worthless and unloved, but has positive evaluations of the other individuals (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). These individuals are waiting for approval from the other person. The fearfully attached person avoids close relationships with others. Evaluates both himself and the other person negatively. It has the feeling that it will be rejected by others. It does not carry a sense of trust (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). While indifferently attached adults see themselves as valuable and lovable, they have a negative evaluation of the person in front of them. These people avoid close relationships and protect themselves and their independence against disappointments (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991).

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