General information about adenoid, tonsil and pharynx region
Infection and inflammation of the pharynx (throat), tonsils and nasal region constitute an important part of childhood diseases. The prevalence of these infections often results in adenoidectomy (adenoid surgery) and tonsillectomy (tonsilectomy), which are common operations in childhood. The lingual tonsils, adenoids and tonsils are part of a lymphatic ring (Waldeyer’s tonsillar ring). The elements of this ring have similar properties and functions . It is one of the first steps of the defense system of the upper respiratory tract. The tonsil tissue differs from other lymphatic tissues in this region because it is surrounded by a capsule and is the largest lymphatic tissue in the region. There are crypts in the tonsils consisting of tubules that end in the blind spot.
Adenoid is the lymphatic tissue found in the nasal region. Adenoid is the tissue that should be found in every person. It begins to form at 7 weeks of pregnancy and continues to grow until age 5. Adenoids and tonsils mostly contribute to the secretory immune system by secreting B lymphocytes. Tonsils give the most active contribution to the immune system between the ages of 4-10.
What is the normal oral flora?
Non-harmful and surface-covering bacteria found in the mouth, tongue, teeth, gingiva and throat area are the normal flora of this region. Normal flora can be thought of as vegetation. They prevent harmful bacteria and viruses from settling in this area.
What are the infections of the nasal, pharynx and throat region?
Viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites can cause infection in this area.
The most common ear, nose and throat infections in children is the common cold. This situation is caused by viruses. The viruses that cause the common cold are many and varied. (rhinovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, reovirus and respiratory syncytial virus). And each of these viruses has its own unique signs and symptoms.
Infectious mononucleosis (kissing disease) presents with complaints of high fever, general malaise, enlarged, swollen, dirty gray tonsils, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. The appearance of small bleeding spots in the junction of the soft palate and hard palate reminds this disease, but it is not diagnostic. It can cause enlargement of the liver and spleen and impaired functions. The diagnosis is made by the patient’s clinic, examination and some laboratory tests. Treatment is symptomatic (find-oriented). Recovery may take weeks. Antibiotics may be used if secondary bacterial infections have been added. Ampicillin group antibiotics can cause rashes, they are not used. In case of severe enlargement of the tonsils to endanger breathing, steroid treatment and tonsillectomy (tonsilectomy) or tracheotomy (hole opening in the windpipe) may be required.
In cases of immune deficiency or secondary to the use of antibiotics, Candida group fungal infections can be seen in the mouth. This group of infections is treated with the appropriate group of antifungal drugs.
It is rare in societies where diphtheria vaccinations are carried out regularly and appropriately. In early return, a white membrane is seen on the tonsils in the throat. The infection can spread to the tonsils and larynx. Swelling in the larynx and the resulting membrane (membrane) can cause airway obstruction. Early diagnosis is important. Initial treatment is to neutralize the toxin circulating in the blood with an antitoxin. Then, high-dose penicillin therapy is given. It can cause neurological (nervous system involvement) conditions such as myocarditis (infection of the heart muscle), Gullian-Barre syndrome and poliomyelitis.
Tonsillitis (beta infection of the throat)
Group A streptococci are the most common bacterial infection of the tonsils. It is a public health problem due to the possibility of causing acute rheumatic fever (cardiac rheumatism) and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (kidney rheumatism). Since the introduction of antibiotics, this group of diseases is now rare. Beta infection of the throat is a common disease of childhood and is seen at the highest rate in the 5-6 age group. It is manifested by dry throat, general malaise, fever, chills, a feeling of fullness in the throat, difficulty in swallowing, painful swallowing, earache, headache, pain in the legs and waist, swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck region. Diagnosis is made by clinical findings, throat culture, rapid antigen test. It is treated with the appropriate group of antibiotics.