It is claimed that Chinese history dates back much earlier than the written period. It is stated in the book Shuo Wen Jie Za, which was written during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) that sharp-edged stones called bian were used long before the use of needles. Over time, needles made of bone or bamboo began to be used instead of bian stones. When the bronze casting technique was developed during the Shang Dynasty (from the 16th century BC to the 11th century), the possibility of using bronze needles emerged and the use of metal needles gained importance. The most extensive first information on the practice of acupuncture is given in the medical treatise Huangdi Nei Jing, which was written in China during the Warring Provinces Period (475-221 BC). The work includes both the techniques applied in the period and the information transferred from the ancient period.
From the Eastern and Western Tsin Dynasties (265-420 AD) to the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589 AD), the application of acupuncture became widespread and developed, and the exact location and names of the meridian points used in acupuncture were determined in the book named Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing written in this period. The book also describes the properties of each point and its relationship with other points, as well as manipulation methods.
The most important contribution to the field of acupuncture during the Sung, Kin and Yuan dynasties (960-1368) was the book Tong Jen Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing written by Wang Wei-yi. In this book, detailed explanations about acupuncture points are made and all 657 points on the human body are shown. Wang Wei-yi also made bronze sculptures in the size of a human body and depicting acupuncture points on it for use in the field of education.
During the Tang Dynasty, acupuncture was taught to students at the royal medical academy, and doctors who played an important role in the development of acupuncture were trained.
Acupuncture was first introduced to the West by Dabry (1853) and Morant (1927).
Acupuncture treatment is based on the relationships between fourteen separate energy channels that pass just under the skin in the body and the organs on which the resistance points on these channels are related. How acupuncture treatment, which acts on a different knowledge from analytical logic-based sciences, works cannot be fully explained from the point of view of western medicine. Today, it is used as an anesthetic in the treatment of more than one hundred and fifty ailments that have been accepted by the World Health Organization, and sometimes in operations, as it has no side effects.
HOW DOES ACUPUNCTURE EFFECT?
When we insert the needle into the acupuncture point, the acupuncture point is stimulated and this warning reaches the necessary centers in the brain. As a result, various neuropeptides are secreted in different areas of our body and the chemicals secreted through circulation reach the diseased area.
The therapeutic effect of acupuncture is collected in 6 groups:
1. Analgesic effect (pain reliever)
2. Sedation effect (relaxing)
3. Homeostatic effect (balance)
4. Immune stimulating effect (Immune system strengthening effect)
5. Psychological effect
6. Improvement effect on motor functions.
1.Analgesic effect: Endorphins and Enkephalins are obtained by secreting. Endorphins and Enkephalins are neuropeptides with very strong pain-relieving properties produced by the body itself. These substances are so effective that they can suppress pain even when people lose their limbs due to accident or other reasons.
The pain relief feature of acupuncture is seen immediately after treatment, which is effective in the treatment of arthrosis, headaches, low back and neck pain and similar painful syndromes.
2.Sedation effect: Stimulation of some acupuncture points provides drowsiness and a rested awakening from sleep. Sedation results from the activation of some brain regions such as Raphe system, basal ganglia, reticular formatio. After acupuncture, increases were detected in the amounts of dopamine, serotonin, endorphin, and GABA (gamma-amino-buteric-acid) in the brain. These substances come into play and relax the patient. The increase in serotonin and dopamine creates a sedation effect in depression, insomnia, anxiety, hysteria, drug addictions and behavioral disorders.
3.Homeostatic effect: Acupuncture provides homeostatic effect by balancing the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
4. Immune stimulant effect: Acupuncture increases body resistance. It creates this effect by increasing the value of leukocytes, antibodies and gamma-globulins in the blood, thus increasing the body’s resistance to infection.
5.Psychological effect: It has a calming and tranquilizing effect. The psychological effect of acupuncture should not be confused with hypnosis and suggestion. Hypnosis only affects 10-15% of the population. Acupuncture is effective in every living being. To perform hypnotic analgesia, the patient needs a long period of education and suggestion.
6. Improvement effect on motor functions: In patients with paralysis, even in the late stages, acupuncture can be answered. It strengthens the muscle, tendon and bone structure. The person’s working power increases.