It is a sebaceous gland-hair follicle (pilosebaceous unit) disease that occurs mostly between the ages of 14 and 20, settles in the upper half of the face and trunk (chest, back, shoulders), and affects approximately 80% of the population. Anatomically, the sebaceous gland, hair shaft and root are in the form of a united unit, so a problem in one part of the unit indirectly affects the other part. Apart from the mentioned age range, we can encounter acne in different age groups. For example; As it can be seen with the effect of hormones passed from the mother in the newborn period or some drugs used by the mother, acne may occur in late adulthood, especially in female individuals, due to hormonal balance changes before and during menopause. The main drugs that cause drug acne can be listed as steroids (cortisone group drugs), antiepileptics (sleep disease = convulsion drugs), tuberculosis (tuberculosis) drugs, antipsychotics (lithium) and antidepressant drugs. Hormones (especially androgenic hormones) secreted with the onset of puberty provide the natural oil secretion of the skin. During this period, female adolescents experience acne at an earlier age – on average (14-17) – and at a later age – on average (16-19) in male adolescents – acne of varying severity. Acne severity tends to be higher in male adolescents than female adolescents. The full name of acne in medical language is Acne Vulgaris, and it has a special importance due to its psychosocial effects on the adolescent individual.

Since many factors are responsible for acne formation, it is considered a multifactorial condition. Among these factors, hormonal factors (adolescence, ovarian and adrenal gland hormone diseases, etc.), genetic factors, structural factors, (skin type), personal factors (cleaning and cosmetic care habits), environmental factors (sun, climatic conditions, altitude above sea level). , humidity, environmental pollution due to industrial wastes, etc.), dietary habits (fast food, excessive consumption of high-glycemic index carbohydrates and cow’s milk, etc.).

Acne elements are divided into two:

1 – Non-inflammatory elements: Open and closed black dots.

2 – Inflammatory elements: Raised, red-headed (pustule) or headless (papule) elements from the skin, deep inflammatory elements (nodules and cysts) under the skin that are palpable and invisible on the surface.

A dermatologist should be consulted for initial symptoms, such as an increase in oil secretion in the skin as a result of hormonal activity with the onset of puberty, and a change in the smell of the scalp followed and defined by the family, the appearance of light black spots on the face, and recommendations should be obtained after the examination and determination of severity.

While the problem is still at the cosmetic level, the transformation of acne into medical violence can be prevented with the opinion of a dermatologist. The simplest things to do can be listed as follows:

From the onset of puberty;

  • Regular morning or evening cleansing of the skin with cleansers suitable for skin type.

  • Moisturizing the skin with oil-free medical cosmetic moisturizers that will not create pore clogging, aiming to maintain the oil/moisture balance, avoiding regular daily concealer make-up (powder and foundation and camouflage).

  • Avoiding face-covering hairstyles and regular daily use of heavy styling products.

  • Make sure to remove make-up before sleep.

  • Avoiding intense sun exposure.

  • Giving importance to daily regular consumption of plenty of water, which is vital for skin health.

Even though we take these simple precautions in the early period with the consultation of a dermatologist and apply them to the letter, if the severity of acne increases and reaches a medical level, the first place we will contact should be a dermatologist. The treatment to be arranged by our dermatologist will vary according to the severity of the problem (mild, moderate, severe), patient characteristics (age, gender, lifestyle, compliance with treatment, character traits and preference) and season. Classical skin care, physical and chemical peeling, which is applied in sessions under the supervision of a dermatologist in clinical conditions, can sometimes be sufficient alone, or sometimes it can be added to prescription medical treatment. Mild to moderate acne is treated externally, and moderate and severe acne is treated externally and orally.

The well-known mistakes in acne can be summarized as follows:

  • The more often I wash my face, the faster I will heal. (Excessive cleaning, on the contrary, disrupts the oil-moisture balance, paving the way for irritation and eczema.

  • My acne is caused by liver disease: Persistent and severe acne can be caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO = ovulation irregularity) in female adolescents and young adults, in both male and female adolescents and young adults, it may indicate adrenal gland hormone problems, an association with the liver there is none.

  • If I sunbathe constantly, my acne will dry out: Light sunbathing can have a drying effect, on the contrary, excessive sunbathing increases blackheads and acne with its occlusive effect.

  • Making a scrub is good for my acne: On the contrary, in patients with intense inflammatory elements, peeling and similar physical applications cause acne to spread.

  • If I squeeze my pimples, I will heal more easily: Trying to empty an immature, inactive pimple causes the inflammation to increase and spread. Mature inflamed elements should also be drained with special techniques only if the dermatologist deems it necessary.


The most important period, which we call the golden age of women, is pregnancy and the postpartum period when the mother holds her baby in her arms. So how should skin care be during these periods and what should be considered:

  • Important stages in a woman’s life are puberty, pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and menopause. Pregnancy is an extraordinary period that we can call the turning point among them. Due to the intense hormonal difference, circulation and metabolism accelerate, and some changes are observed in the skin as in other organs.

  • Due to the increase in sebum, which is the natural oil secretion of the skin, from the first 3 months of pregnancy, acne (pimples) can be seen even in mothers who have no acne predisposition. During this period, care should be taken to clean the skin with non-chemical, organic and reliable cleaners. Skin care can be done in safe and competent hands, under the supervision of a dermatologist, as long as no chemicals are used. Mechanical (physical) peelings should be preferred if there is demand and necessity, not chemical.

Pigmentation (color) changes:

  • Darkening of the nipples.

  • Darkening of the vertical line between the navel and chest (Linea nigra).

  • Increase in number and size in all moles on the body.

Pregnancy mask formation (Chloasma) on the face (cheekbones, forehead and nose): For this reason, it is essential to use sunscreen products containing organic and mineral filters, especially for brunette mothers. A sufficient amount should be applied to the face thirty minutes before going out in the sun and the application should be repeated every 3 hours if they are outdoors.

Hair Changes: As a result of the hair cells entering the anagen (growth – development) phase due to hormonal reasons, a lively, shiny, high quality and healthy hair appearance emerges. We recommend postponing chemical processes that will cause color and shape changes in the hair during pregnancy and lactation.

Nail changes:

  • Lines and breaks: They are seen due to some vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Supportive treatments should be given by the following physicians.

  • Ingrown nail: It occurs due to weight gain and edema in the following months. Very comfortable shoes should be preferred, and a dermatologist should be consulted when a problem is felt.

Symptoms related to immune system (immune) changes: The tendency to fungal infections increases. In this case, besides the differences in immunity, the increase in weight and sweating also has a share. In order to avoid fungal infections, it is very important to dry the fold areas (in the ear, behind the ear, neck, under the arm, between and under the breasts, navel, groin, between the toes) very well after the bath, and to choose cotton socks and underwear.

Changes caused by the stretching of the skin and the pressure of the baby appear especially in the last 3 months:

  • In the early months of pregnancy, with the recommendation of a dermatologist, the application of non-chemical medical cosmetic products that increase skin elasticity and will not harm the baby should be started. These should be applied with massage. It should be essential to keep our pregnancy weight under control, it is best to gain enough weight for our baby, not for ourselves.

  • Cellulite (light exercises suitable for this period can be planned by the necessary experts and the severity of the problem can be alleviated).

  • Leg and dorsal edema.

  • Vein problems (varicose, hemorrhoids, etc.).

Primary skin diseases (psoriasis, etc.) existing before pregnancy: The course of these diseases is variable during pregnancy and puerperium, and an increase and worsening of attacks can be seen in one group, and rest (decrease in disease activity) in another group. For this reason, it is essential that they be under the control of a dermatologist.

The inseparable medical trio of pregnancy and postpartum period should be a gynecologist, a dietitian and a dermatologist, since the skin is the largest organ of our body that opens to the outside world and is the most important organ in interpersonal communication.


The spots that cast a shadow on the beauty of the skin are on our beauty agenda, especially with the approach of the summer months. So, what are the ways and treatments to prevent these spots?

Stains are some lesions that are visible on the skin surface, can be noticed from the outside, have a different tone than the normal skin, and are at the same level as the skin. The most important formation factor is the sun.

In addition, periods of hormonal differences such as pregnancy, childbirth, puerperium, and some drugs (especially estrogen-containing birth control pills, cortisone drugs, etc.) can create a predisposition for women. It is more evident especially in dark-skinned people.

The use of preventive or alleviating, safe medical cosmetic sunscreens should not be neglected with the recommendation of a dermatologist during the mentioned periods and in those with prone skin types. It would be more appropriate for us to take the sunlight, which is vital for the production of vitamin D in the body, from the skin of another body area such as the back of our hands, instead of our facial skin, because for us ladies, our facial skin is our most valuable garment, our most precious jewel. And again, we all know that unprotected and generous sunbathing will cause our clothes to wrinkle and stain prematurely. However, it is in our hands to protect it carefully for many years and to maintain its youth and beauty.

We especially underline that skin color is a very important factor in the susceptibility to stains, and we would like to remind you once again that dark skin is disadvantageous.

One of the most important aspects to be considered while sunbathing is cosmetics containing alcohol and essence. The most well-known of these substances is bergamot oil in the content of perfumes, which reacts with the sun and causes staining. Therefore, the substances applied to the skin of people with a history of stains should not contain alcohol and essence. These people should choose products under the consultation of a dermatologist.

Spot treatments, as in all other treatments, should be individualized. Before the treatment, the stain level (upper – lower skin) is determined by means of a wood lamp in the dark room. According to this analysis, a step-by-step treatment system is applied from the surface to the deep. Chemical and physical peeling sessions are used alternately in resurfacing. Until the session processes are completed, you must be protected from the sun after the application, and also avoid sensitive skin pouches and intense heat sources (shower with boiling water, sauna, Turkish bath, etc.).

What we need to know especially in the treatment of stains is that as long as there is an encounter with the factors that cause staining, it is inevitable that the stain will return (gradually) over time. Therefore, after achieving a spotless or very lightened skin appearance, the vital points necessary to protect this condition are the regular use of sunscreen suitable for us with the recommendation of a dermatologist, and the repetition of the reminder sessions of the mentioned methods at the end of the beach vacation every year.

Suggestions for those who say they can’t give up my sun:

  • Adequate consumption of natural vitamin A (Beta carotene), natural source of vitamin A (carrots, apricots, etc.) in addition to our sunscreens during the sunny season.

  • Peeling, mesotherapy and PRP applications under the supervision of a dermatologist, which will lighten the dark spots left over from summer and prevent them from penetrating deep in the autumn and winter months.

  • Things to know: We are always in favor of using natural and organic products, not chemicals, but without treating natural products, such as plants and fruits, in a laboratory environment, without making the acidity (pH) formula suitable for the skin, without removing the substances that may cause irritation or sun allergy in its content, It is not healthy to apply to the face skin in its natural state.

  • Applying the contents of orally taken vitamin E capsules to the skin is not suitable because vitamin E has a direct effect on hair growth. However, the concentration and amount of vitamin E in ready-made cosmetic products have been adapted to the skin in the laboratory environment. We should stay away from cigarettes and cigarette smoke for the health of our skin.

  • If possible, we should consume 7 – 8 glasses of water a day. We should not prefer fatty and sugary foods and we should not forget that the most important source of youth and health is positive thinking power and positive mood.


Women want to look young and beautiful at any age, but today, men as well as women are looking for ways to discover the secret of looking young and pleasing to the eye. Here are the current anti-aging methods, which are the formula of rejuvenation:

Anti-aging (rejuvenating methods) can be examined under different headings according to their effects and application methods. Some of these are actually methods that do not have a rejuvenating effect on the structure (texture) of the skin, but create a feeling of youth by creating a kind of illusionary shape change.

  • Botox: It is a miracle application, the effect of which starts on the 4th day after a short-term application of 5-10 minutes, especially on the upper face and continues for an average of 4 – 6 months. Especially when it is started in the second half of the 30s at the latest and repeated at regular intervals, the settlement of wrinkles due to mimic muscle activity is prevented. A face appearance behind the age of the calendar is obtained, even at older ages and wrinkles are settled, alone or in combination with other methods, the pleasant appearance desired by the person is achieved.

  • Filling: Permanent or temporary, different types are available. It is applied to fill the grooves in the lower half of the face, which are loosened due to gravity, on the upper face and deep mimic lines, together with botox or to add volume to certain points of the face (such as cheekbones).

  • Skin quality-enhancing anti-aging applications: In general, it creates a healthy, radiant, slightly tight and fresh skin appearance. They can be applied from the age of 20, they act as the insurance of the skin.

  • Peels (chemical – physical): Over the years, the upper layer of the skin (dead skin = stratum corneum) thickens due to natural oil secretion (sebum), ultraviolet (sunlight), environmental pollution, make-up residues, and as a result, the fresh cells at the bottom become thicker. Since it cannot breathe, a dull, dull, stained and aged skin appearance appears. In order to prevent this, personally designed sessions are applied under the guidance and supervision of a dermatologist every year in non-sunny seasons such as autumn and winter.

  • Mesolifting (vitamin injections): Substances such as all vitamins, minerals, coenzymes, growth factors, salmon DNA required for collagen – elastic fiber production in the middle skin are injected into the skin in cocktail form, in a certain protocol, in sessions.

  • PRP, the person’s own blood is centrifuged at a certain time and for a certain period of time, the liquid part (plasma) rich in reparative and regenerative cellular factors is separated and injected into the skin in sessions, by drawing a special program.

  • Autologous fibroblast transplantation: Fibroblasts obtained from a biopsy material taken from a skin area that is not exposed to sunlight (such as behind the ear, inner part of the upper arm) by multiplying in cell culture in a laboratory with international standards, are injected into the problematic areas.

  • Device applications based on controlled thermal damage: With all these interventions, collagen – elastic fiber production is stimulated in a certain period of time in response to damage, thereby increasing skin quality.

  • Laser systems: Fractionated laser applications are the most up-to-date and reliable. The application should definitely be preferred with the opinion of a dermatologist and again under the supervision of a dermatologist.

  • Focused ultrasound devices.

  • Radiofrequency.

It is known that the most important environmental risk factors in skin aging are the sun and smoking. At the same time, our skin is like a mirror that reflects the food groups we consume, our lifestyle and our mood. Therefore, maintaining a young and beautiful appearance is not possible with care for our skin alone. The importance of a balanced diet, adequate sleep, plenty of water consumption, exercise, positive thinking and behavior patterns cannot be denied.

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