Kidney tumors; They are usually malignant (malignant) tumors arising from kidney cells. However, benign kidney tumors such as Oncocytoma and Angiomyolipoma are also encountered. Although kidney cancers constitute 2-3% of all cancers, it ranks 3rd among genitourinary system cancers after prostate and bladder cancer. It is the 7th leading cause of death in men and 9th in women.
Smoking, obesity and hypertension are the most prominent risk factors. It is also known that chronic renal failure and exposure to heavy metals increase the risk of kidney tumors. It rarely shows familial genetic transmission. The tumor is usually seen in the 60-70’s. However, in parallel with the early emergence of existing risk factors in our country, it is possible to encounter kidney tumor patients at a younger age. Kidney tumors are one of the rarely symptomatic diseases. Symptoms such as flank pain, bleeding in the urine, weakness, weight loss and loss of appetite can be seen.
Diagnosis is mostly made by radiological examinations such as Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography performed for other reasons. Due to the widespread use of these radiological examinations, there is an increase in annual incidence, and at the same time, the rate of diagnosis at an early stage is increasing.
After diagnosis, more advanced imaging methods (CT, MRI, Bone Scintigraphy) may be required to determine the stage of the disease.
Treatment of kidney tumors diagnosed at an early stage is more successful. European Association of Urology (EAU) and American Association of Urology (AUA) guidelines; Recommends nephron-sparing surgery (removal of only the mass and a part of the kidney) in the treatment of kidney tumors smaller than 4 cm, limited to the kidney and suitable for localization. In the treatment of larger and unsuitable tumors, radical nephrectomy (complete removal of the kidney with the mass) is required. If the tumor has exceeded the kidney limits and metastasized (splash) to other tissues and organs, methods such as smart drugs and immunotherapy should be applied in addition to surgical treatment. Today, in the world and in our country, surgery can be performed openly, laparoscopically or robot-assisted depending on the experience of the surgeon and the technical conditions. The success rates of all three methods are similar. Radiofrequency ablation is also offered as an option in the treatment of small kidney tumors in patients whose general condition is not suitable for surgery.
Kidney tumors may show a tendency to recur at varying rates depending on the stage. Therefore, regular follow-up of patients after surgery is of vital importance. Follows; physical examination, blood tests and radiological imaging methods should be done.