0 – 1 Age Developmental Characteristics and Importance of Parental Attitudes

Development Features:

Newborn: The behavior of the newborn baby is very limited. Although the baby has a high learning potential from the moment he is born, what he can do is less than what he has learned. He is very interested in his surroundings, seeks to understand, reacts to bright moving objects, sounds and human faces. For this reason, it is important to be with the baby and help him perceive his environment. It is sensitive to touch and displacement. The newborn automatically responds to stimuli. It is seen that the baby automatically pulls his feet towards his chest when the soles are touched (babinski reflex) or automatically squeezes his fingers when the palm is touched. One of the most important reflexes of the newborn is the moro reflex. Moro reflex is a symmetrical stance that emerges immediately in the face of a certain stimulus. In this response, the baby throws his arms to the side, stretches his fingers, then folds his hands and arms in the middle. Moro reflex is seen when the mother suddenly releases the hand that supports the baby’s head. This reaction is in the 3rd-4th. disappears within a month. A newborn cannot lift his head. Can’t turn or sit while lying down. After a few weeks it starts doing some. Recognizes bright objects in the visual field. He can easily see toys and objects that are brought closer to him. The 2-week-old baby changes eye movements to see the object on the surface. From birth, a baby’s pupils are sensitive to light. He can close his eyes in bright light. It opens its eyes when held upright. He can look at the same light with both eyes. He is particularly interested in the human face. From about the 3rd week, she examines her mother’s face with increasing attention while feeding or talking to her. It also enjoys brightly colored moving images that hang, sway and make noise. If the object is moved above the child’s visual line, it follows it with head and eye movements within a limited area. The perceptual acuity of the newborn in the hearing field is better than the visual acuity. It can easily detect sounds. It can recognize the sounds of certain objects. He turns his head in the direction of the sound. Studies have shown that a one-week-old baby can distinguish the mother’s voice from other female voices and prefer it to other voices. The first social behavior seen at the beginning of life is the attachment of infants to their mothers. The baby’s social skills are limited. She tries to get attention by crying when she needs it. Even when the newborn is crying and whining, he has already done some exercises necessary for speaking. The baby has the opportunity to repeat the lip, jaw and tongue movements necessary to make the sounds during crying.

1 – 3 months: Turns his head to the side while lying on his back. Sudden movements and changes in posture are seen in the arms and legs. Arms are more active than legs. When it is read on the cheek or the corner of the mouth, it turns its head to the same side and tries to suck. When standing on a hard surface, he puts his feet on the ground, straightens the trunk and usually makes a forward walking motion. It turns its head and eyes towards the light source. Among the visual stimuli, the person looks at the face the most, and looks at the eye in the face. 2 month old baby learns to focus his gaze. Becomes startled by sudden noise or noise. She cries when she is hungry or restless, when she is not comfortable. It makes sounds when spoken. He turns his head to familiar sounds. Towards 5-6 weeks, it is seen that social smiling and vocal expressions in the form of reaction develop. During the first 2 months, the baby develops similar reactions indiscriminately towards anyone in sight or holding him. It is sensitive to sounds, pays attention to faces, shows interest. Towards the end of the first month, the baby takes his hand to his mouth and sucks his thumb. Mouth responses are fused with hand responses. A behavior that the baby has achieved by chance 1.-4. It is seen that it recurs continuously between months. He follows the moving shapes with his eyes. Holds head upright when picked up. Raises head when lying face down. While sitting on the lap, he turns his head and looks around. When he is held in his lap, he is quiet and calm. When the breast approaches, it opens its mouth. He watches his hands while lying on his back. She responds when she smiles.

3 – 6 months: Prefers to lie on the back with the head in the middle. Arms and legs bend more easily, movements are more regular. By 3 months, the baby is no longer concerned with where the object is, but with what it is. It tries to recognize the object. When the baby is 3 months old, he can distinguish his mother’s face from other faces. He is intensely interested in the face of the person close to him. Follows adult movements that enter the field of view. He holds the rattle given to his hand for a few minutes and can bring it close to his face. In the prone position, he can raise his head to form a 90° angle. Makes sounds other than crying by itself or while feeding. Laughs out loud without being tickled or touched. Reaches for things. He takes things and looks at them. He brings the object in his hand to his mouth. He passes the rattle from one hand to the other. Holds the toy where it can reach. He takes the cubes placed in front of him. He shows his love by hugging his parents.

6 – 9 months: At 6 months, the baby tries to make distinctive sounds. When he hears someone coming, he gets excited and starts raising his arms up to go to the lap. He knows his own name. Lifts head off pillow in supine position. He raises his legs to a vertical position. He grasps his feet with his hands. Sits with support. It can turn from prone to supine and from supine to prone position. He sits up, pulling himself up. He makes walking movements when held under his arms. He tries to take what is put in front of him. He holds the glass with both hands. Passes the object from one hand to the other. He pulls out his head. Picks up objects by grasping them. He watches with meaningful interest what the adult is doing in the room. 6 months old baby can find which voice belongs to which face. Spreads smiles while playing games. She cries when she is angry or bored. He puts everything in his mouth. He throws the toys on the ground and watches them fall. Leaning in, looking for fallen items. He hits the object in his hand on the ground to make a sound. Spells out like “da-da, ba-ba, ma-ma”.

9 – 12 months: At 9 months, the baby knows his own name. Understands the word “no”. He shows affection by pressing his face and head to his parents. He gets angry when his toy is taken away from him. Can sit unassisted for 10-15 minutes. Efforts. Reaches out to pick up the toy offered to him. He pushes things with his index finger, shows them. He shouts for attention. Clearly distinguishes between strangers and familiar people. He grasps the glass with his hand. He tries to hold the spoon while eating. Can follow some simple instructions (like give). Can imitate animal sounds. The 9-month-old baby begins to search for the hidden object. When the toy in front of him is hidden with a cover, he pulls the cover and finds the toy. He hits the two toys in his hand against each other. When “atta” is said, he looks at the door. He plays the clapping game. 10.-11. He says the words “dad” when he sees his father, and “mama” when he sees food. When he says “give it to me”, he hands the toy in his hand. Sorts by holding on to the item. It takes a step when one hand is held. It shakes when the music plays. shakes hands.

12 months: Great progress is seen in comprehension, comprehension and communication skills. Says two or three meaningful words. He understands more than he can say. It can show where things are. Knows the names of body parts. Can hold small objects using thumb and forefinger. Can use the index finger to push and point. It can put some objects inside, on top of others. Can point to objects recognizable from the book. 1 year old baby can walk. It can move from a lying position to a sitting position. Begins to show interest in paintings. It returns immediately when called. From the age of 1, the child learns to throw appropriate shapes into the gaps and to make towers. Holds the spoon but cannot yet use it on its own. While getting dressed, it helps the person wearing it by extending his arm and foot.

* Parent Attitudes:

In order to survive in the first months, the child needs the presence of the adult, his care and feeding, and his love, which is at least as important as these. If this care and love is not enough, it is extremely difficult for him to survive. Meeting the care and love needs of the baby, whose mobility and living space is extremely limited, affects his development positively.

The first 6 months is a period in which the child is sensitive to the needs of his own body, but also develops a commitment to adults who help him meet these needs. This commitment also creates the source of the feeling of trust in the child, especially in these first years. The mother’s eye contact with the baby plays an important role in the development of the social bond between them. If the child cannot develop a positive relationship, preferably with the mother or another adult who can take his place in her absence, in the first weeks and months following the birth, then it will have difficulty in being a trusting and reliable adult who can easily relate to other people in the society. If the mother acts in a way to support this behavior of the child from the first days when he manages to bring the spoon to his mouth, if he can encourage the baby to eat by himself with another spoon while feeding, she will support him in developing his self-confidence and initiative ability as well as laying the foundation of the right eating habits in the future.

The behavior of the parents during the meeting of the child’s needs is extremely important as they are the examples that form the behavior model in his life in the future. The mother’s tone of voice, the way she holds the child, and her punctuality in meeting her needs affect the child’s perspective on this foreign world to which he has just come. If his mother hugs him tenderly, caresses his head with sweet words while giving the breast, takes measures to comfort him as soon as he gets wet, while his father’s soft voice says something that he is sure is beautiful, the child smiles at them and looks around with confidence. On the contrary, it is not possible for the child to look at the world with confidence if the mother accepts feeding the child as a difficult task and takes him in her arms and behaves in a strict manner, or if the father says something by shouting that he is uncomfortable with his crying.

The baby, who was dependent on his mother for everything, is expected to show the power to control his own life as he gets older. For this to happen, the child undoubtedly needs a rich stimulating environment.

Auditory stimulation provided on site after birth strengthens emotional and social development and language development. The basics of language, an important method of relating to another person, are learned through early experience. Children can do good voiceovers as long as their parents talk to them. When sounds are used for a certain concept, sometimes they mean the same for the speaker and the hearer, and it becomes a word that everyone accepts. For example, a child who begins to use symbols instead of the actual word may say “dut” instead of a car. Adults’ adoption of the child’s symbols, or even starting to use them together, may delay the replacement of symbols with words.

* How can parents decide whether there is a developmental problem?

The presence of any of the following warning signals requires professional help.

  • A “very good” baby sleeps all the time.

  • He doesn’t make much eye contact with his parents.

  • It shows a consistent unresponsiveness to human voices and other sounds.

  • There is marked asymmetry in arm and leg movements (right and left body parts should appear equally strong during the first year).

  • A notable delay in most or all of the generally accepted milestones of motor development (crawling, sitting, walking, etc.).

  • Significant delay in social communication, not participating in games such as hiding and “ce”, waving goodbye.

  • Inability to complete language development within appropriate time limits.

  • Reacting to abnormal intensities in the face of physical stimuli such as sound, light, contact.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.